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Neutron activation analysis-electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETA-AAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) have been used for the determination of 46 elements in urine, 35 in blood and 26 in serum of unexposed Italian subjects living in the same region (Lombardy). The results allowed the proposal of reference(More)
This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist(More)
Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the concentration of 36 elements in neuromelanin, 22 elements in substantia nigra, and 32 elements in putamen of healthy subjects without signs of neurological disorders. Substantia nigra and putamen tissues were carefully dissected from the brain using special surgical instruments and(More)
Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used for the quantitative determination of 13 trace elements in urine and seven trace elements in whole blood of healthy unexposed British subjects living in three regions of the United Kingdom. Careful(More)
Cytotoxicity and morphological transformation has been studied in BALB/3T3 Cl A31-1-1 mouse embryo cells for ammonium vanadate [vanadium(V)] and vanadyl sulphate [vanadium(IV)] alone or in combination with diethylmaleate (DEM), a cellular glutathione (GSH)-depleting agent. Cells exposed for 24 h to 10(-5) M vanadium(V) alone or in combination with 3 x(More)
Cytotoxicity, morphological transformation and cellular retention have been studied in BALB/3T3 Cl A 31-1-1 cells for ammonium or sodium vanadate [vanadium(V)] and for vanadyl sulphate [vanadium(IV)]. A morphological transformation focus assay showed transforming activity for vanadium(V) (P less than 0.005 at concentrations of 3 x 10(-6) or higher) while(More)
The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) proposes to make the validation process more flexible, while maintaining its high standards. The various aspects of validation are broken down into independent modules, and the information necessary to complete each module is defined. The data required to assess test validity in an(More)
The accumulation of arsenic with time in tissues of rats and rabbits was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Rats showed a steady increase in the As-concentrations with age, whereas in rabbits it was nearly the same for adults and in young animals. The metabolism of arsenic was studied in both animal species after i.p. injection of(More)
Reference values for the concentration of elements in whole blood for the UK population are presented together with estimates for concentrations in plasma and urine. The blood data, when compared with other values obtained for Belgium, Denmark and Italy, obtained through the EURO-Terviht programme of the European Union, together with data from other(More)