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An extended logic programming language is presented, that embodies the fundamental form of set designation based on the (nesting) element insertion operator. The kind of sets to be handled is characterized both by adaptation of a suitable Herbrand universe and via axioms. Predicates 2 and = designating set membership and equality are included in the base(More)
In this paper, we present two alternative approaches to defining answer sets for logic programs with arbitrary types of abstract constraint atoms (c-atoms). These approaches generalize the fixpoint-based and the level mapping based answer set semantics of normal logic programs to the case of logic programs with arbitrary types of c-atoms. The results are(More)
We provide a new perspective on the semantics of logic programs with arbitrary abstract constraints. To this end, we introduce several notions of computation. We use the results of computations to specify answer sets of programs with constraints. We present the rationale behind the classes of computations we consider, and discuss the relationships among(More)
Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species) are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of(More)