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In order to move forward the vision of Smart Grid, a flexible multi-utility and multi-service metering architecture is needed to allow innovative services and utilities for the different actors playing in this scenario. To achieve this, different meters (e.g. electric, water, heating and gas meters) must be integrated into a distributed architecture in(More)
International Standards define a Global Earthing System as an earthing net created interconnecting local Earthing Systems (generally through the shield of MV cables and/or bare buried conductors). In Italy, the regulatory authority for electricity and gas requires distributors to guarantee the electrical continuity of LV neutral conductor. This requirement(More)
When a single line to ground fault (SLGF) happens on the MV side of an HV/MV system, only a small portion of the fault current is injected into the ground by the ground grid of the faulty substation. In fact, the fault current is distributed between grounding electrodes and MV cables sheaths. In systems with isolated neutral or with resonant earthing, this(More)
Global earthing systems (GESs), created by the interconnection of local earthing systems, should guarantee the absence of dangerous touch voltages. One of the reasons for this safety characteristic of GESs is the fault current distribution between grounding electrodes and medium-voltage (MV) cable sheaths: Only a small portion of the fault current is(More)
Global earthing systems (GESs), which are created by the interconnection of local earthing systems, should guarantee the absence of dangerous touch voltages. According to international standards, one of the reasons for this safety characteristic of GESs is that medium-voltage and low-voltage grounding systems form a quasi-equipotential area. Typical(More)
Firefighting activities regarding buildings normally require electric power to be disconnected before a water jet is used, in order to minimize the risk of electrocution. As for as concerns Photovoltaic Systems, during a fire event it is not possible to turn off the whole power system in order to guarantee that all the components are de-energized. The(More)
The objective of this paper is to review various methods of determining the extent of hazardous areas in industrial facilities where explosive gas or vapor atmospheres may be present. Three different approaches are analyzed and compared. The first one is recommended in North American Standards, such as API 500, API 505, and NFPA 497. The second is one of(More)
The safety and protection of workers is a duty of their employer. In case of presence of hazardous areas due to the risk of explosion, an area classification has to be performed to identify the shape and size of the locations where an explosion may happen. Two typical cases that can produce hazardous areas are gas emissions from a containment system,(More)