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In patients with primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis, brain MRI lesion activity and burden are low, despite the presence of severe neurological impairment. On the contrary, the degree of cord atrophy and diffuse tissue damage in the brain and cervical cord have been found to be associated with clinical disability. Against this background, this study(More)
Cervical cord damage is likely to contribute to the accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be quantified in vivo using MRI. We used conventional and diffusion tensor (DT) MRI to: (a) define the temporal evolution of intrinsic tissue injury and atrophy in the cervical cord from MS patients, (b) investigate how these two aspects of cord(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess cortical gray matter (GM) changes in MS and establish their relevance to clinical disability and to inflammatory changes of white matter (WM) in patients with the relapsing-remitting (RR) and primary progressive (PP) forms of the disease. METHODS Conventional MRI examinations were obtained in patients with definite MS who had either(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to the more destructive aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) evolution occurring outside and within T2-visible lesions and, as a consequence, holds promise for providing a more complete picture of primary progressive (PP) MS-related tissue damage than conventional magnetic resonance imaging.(More)
BACKGROUND The occurrence or recurrence of autoimmune diseases or of autoantibodies (autoAb) has been reported during type I interferon (IFN) treatment. OBJECTIVE To define the frequency of thyroid and liver dysfunction and of autoimmunity during IFN-beta 1b (IFNB) treatment of MS. METHODS Prospective 1-year multicenter follow-up of 156 patients with MS(More)
The mechanisms underlying the progressive course of multiple sclerosis (MS) are not fully understood yet. Since diffusion tensor (DT) MRI can provide quantitative estimates of both MRI-visible and MRI-occult brain damage related to MS, the present study investigated the value of DT MRI-derived measures for the assessment of the short-term accumulation of(More)
BACKGROUND The three interferon beta preparations approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) differ in dose and frequency of administration. Interferon beta-1a 30 microg is administered once a week, interferon beta-1a 22 microg or 44 microg is given three times a week, and interferon beta-1b 250 microg is administered on alternate(More)
Reliable prognostic markers of primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis evolution are still needed. Diffusion tensor (DT) MRI can quantify normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) damage in multiple sclerosis patients. We investigated whether conventional and DT-MRI-derived measures can predict the long-term clinical evolution of PP(More)
BACKGROUND The multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) is a multidimensional, MS-specific outcome measure for use in clinical trials, comprising three tests: timed 25-foot walk (T25FW), paced auditory serial addition (PASAT), and 9-hole peg (9HP). OBJECTIVE To assess interrater and intrarater reliability and practice/fatigue effects in the MSFC. (More)
In recent years, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been supposed to be of viral origin, and amantadine hydrochloride has been suggested as therapy because of its proved antiviral action. We studied nine patients with CJD (confirmed at autopsy in seven). Four were treated with amantadine hydrochloride, in dosages ranging from 3.5 to 15 mg/kg/day for an(More)