Enrico Garaci

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Previous interethnic comparative studies on the susceptibility to malaria performed in West Africa showed that Fulani are more resistant to Plasmodium falciparum malaria than are sympatric ethnic groups. This lower susceptibility is not associated to classic malaria-resistance genes, and the analysis of the immune response to P. falciparum sporozoite and(More)
Undifferentiated cells and embryos express high levels of endogenous non-telomerase reverse transcriptase (RT) of retroposon/retroviral origin. We previously found that RT inhibitors modulate cell growth and differentiation in several cell lines. We have now sought to establish whether high levels of RT activity are directly linked to cell transformation.(More)
Cells of macrophage lineage represent a key target of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in addition to CD4-lymphocytes. The absolute number of infected macrophages in the body is relatively low compared to CD4-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, the peculiar dynamics of HIV replication in macrophages, their long-term survival after HIV infection, and their ability(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) show a remarkable functional plasticity in the recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus and orchestrate the antifungal immune resistance in the lungs. Here, we show that thymosin alpha 1, a naturally occurring thymic peptide, induces functional maturation and interleukin-12 production by fungus-pulsed DCs through the p38 mitogen-activated(More)
The role of glutathione (GSH) in the in vitro infection and replication of human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was investigated. Intracellular endogenous GSH levels dramatically decreased in the first 24 h after virus adsorption, starting immediately after virus challenge. The addition of exogenous GSH was not only able to restore its intracellular(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin with the ability to exert specific effects on cells of the immune system. Human monocytes/macrophages (M/M) infected in vitro with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) are able to produce substantial levels of NGF that are associated with enhanced expression of the high-affinity NGF receptor (p140 trkA) on the M/M surface.(More)
The antiapoptotic role of Bcl-2 can be regulated by its phosphorylation in serine and threonine residues located in a nonstructured loop that links BH3 and BH4 domains. p38 MAPK has been identified as one of the kinases able to mediate such phosphorylation, through direct interaction with Bcl-2 protein in the mitochondrial compartment. In this study, we(More)
Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of(More)
Central memory (T(CM)) and transitional memory (T(TM)) CD4(+) T cells are known to be the major cellular reservoirs for HIV, as these cells can harbor a transcriptionally silent form of viral DNA that is not targeted by either the immune system or current antiretroviral drug regimens. In the present study, we explored the molecular bases of the anti-HIV(More)
Production of nerve growth factor (NGF) was assessed in cultures of human T and B lymphocytes and macrophages. NGF was constitutively produced by B cells only, which also expressed surface p140trk-A and p75NGFR molecules and hence efficiently bound and internalized the cytokine. Neutralization of endogenous NGF caused disappearance of Bcl-2 protein and(More)