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We report a quantitative analysis of the major populations of cells present in the retina of the C57 mouse. Rod and cone photoreceptors were counted using differential interference contrast microscopy in retinal whole mounts. Horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and Müller cells were identified in serial section electron micrographs assembled into serial(More)
Animal models of retinitis pigmentosa include the rd mouse, in which a mutation of a rod-specific phosphodiesterase leads to the rapid loss of photoreceptors during the early postnatal life. Very little is known about changes occurring in inner retinal neurons after photoreceptor loss. These changes are important in view of the possibility of restoring(More)
Mammalian retinal degenerations initiated by gene defects in rods, cones or the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) often trigger loss of the sensory retina, effectively leaving the neural retina deafferented. The neural retina responds to this challenge by remodeling, first by subtle changes in neuronal structure and later by large-scale reorganization.(More)
The synaptic connections of the narrow-field, bistratified rod amacrine cell (AII) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rabbit retina were reconstructed from electron micrographs of continuous series of thin sections. The AII amacrine cell receives a large synaptic input from the axonal endings of rod bipolar cells in the most vitreal region of the IPL(More)
This is a brief review of data obtained by analyzing the morphology and the physiology of the retinas in rd/rd and normal, wt mice, aged 10-90 days. Second-order neurons of the rd/rd show abnormalities that start with the anomalous development of rod bipolar cells around P10 and culminate with the atrophy of dendrites in cone bipolar cells, mostly evident(More)
We have reconstructed from electron micrographs of a continuous series of thin sections the synaptic connections of the axonal arborizations of all the rod bipolar cells contained in a small region of the retina of the rabbit. We observed that all rod bipolars share the same pattern of connectivity and are probably functionally equivalent. As a rule, they(More)
We investigated the effects of photoreceptor degeneration on the anatomy and physiology of inner retinal neurons in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa, the retinal degeneration (rd) mutant mouse. Although there is a general assumption that the inner retinal cells do not suffer from photoreceptor death, we confirmed major changes both accompanying and(More)
In the mammalian retina, rod signals are transmitted by rod bipolars to the narrow-field, bistratified (AII) amacrine cell. This neuron, in turn, makes gap junctions with the axonal arborization of cone bipolar cells that reside in the vitreal half (sublamina b) of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). After examining rod bipolars and AII amacrines in the rabbit(More)
The initial goal of this study was to establish an accounting of the major classes of cells present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the rabbit's retina. Series of 80-100 radial sections 1 micron thick were cut from retinal blocks dissected at intervals along the vertical meridian. They were photographed at high magnification in the light microscope. By(More)
Naturally occurring cell death is believed to play a major role during the development of the nervous system in the establishment of neuronal architecture. Here we study the effects of cell death inhibition by using a transgenic mouse in which the powerful antiapoptotic gene bcl-2 is expressed in neurons. The retina of this mouse reveals that the general(More)