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BACKGROUND Poor nutritional status is associated with immunologic impairment and adverse health outcomes among adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS We investigated body mass index (BMI), middle upper arm circumference (MUAC), and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 18,271(More)
BACKGROUND Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the burden of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in a HIV-infected population and explore the demographic and clinical factors associated with the occurrence of pediatric TB. DESIGN Longitudinal analysis of a cohort of HIV-infected children. METHODS The endpoint of the study was clinically diagnosed TB. Cox proportional hazard regression(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D. DESIGN We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D(More)
Limited data are available on dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, non-fasting HIV-infected patients in Tanzania between November 2004 to June 2008. Robust linear regression modeling was performed. Lipid parameters were assessed in 12,513 patients(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine the incidence rate and risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania. DESIGN A prospective observational study among HIV-infected adults attending HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam. METHODS We estimated TB incidence rates among HIV-infected(More)
Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for exploring the health consequences of consuming different dietary patterns. We used this approach to examine the cross-sectional relationship between dietary patterns and insulin-resistant phenotypes, including waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, 2 h post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120),(More)
Although the beneficial effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for preventing mother-to-child transmission are indisputable, studies in developed and developing countries have reported conflicting findings on the association between ARV exposure and adverse birth outcomes. We conducted a prospective observational study at 10 human immunodeficiency virus(More)
BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent among HIV-infected populations. We describe their prevalence and associated risk factors among HIV-infected adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were overweight or obese at enrollment to care and treatment(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate risk factors for maternal mortality among HIV-infected women in Tanzania. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING HIV care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. POPULATION HIV-infected pregnant women. METHODS Data were collected for all patients enrolled in an HIV/AIDS care and treatment program. Between(More)