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We have previously demonstrated that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) can be released from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells and when added to the medium in physiological concentration it releases LH from individual gonadotropes. In the present work, we studied whether the release of PACAP and the responsiveness of LH cells to(More)
The presence of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was previously demonstrated in the anterior pituitary by radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of cell immunoblot assay (CIBA), when the pituitary cells were cultured on nitrocellulose membrane, the release of(More)
The presence of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its mRNAin the three levels of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-ovarian axis was previously demonstrated using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the hypothalamus, PACAP is present in neuroendocrine effector(More)
The presence of PACAP and VIP was demonstrated in all the four levels of the photoneuroendocrine system (PNES) with the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC), radioimmunoassay (RIA), anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques, and cell immunoblot assay (CIBA). Both peptides play a physiological role in the PNES. According to our results both PACAP and VIP(More)
The major goals of this present study were 1) to further clarify which parasympathetic ganglion sends postganglionic fibers to the lower gingiva and lip that may be involved in the inflammatory processes besides the local factors; 2) to separately examine the central pathways regulating sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation; and 3) to examine the(More)
The aerobic granular sludge process is a promising technology for the removal of nutrients and organic contaminants from wastewater. However, a large amount of the sludge is often washed out during the start-up of granular reactors, which results in reduced process performance and a protracted start-up phase. In this study, the possibility of a rapid(More)
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