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Deleterious processes of extracellular proteolysis may contribute to the progression of tissue damage after acute brain injury. We recently showed that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) knock-out mice were protected against ischemic and traumatic brain injury. In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved by focusing on relevant MMP-9 substrates in(More)
Treatment of neuropathic pain, triggered by multiple insults to the nervous system, is a clinical challenge because the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain development remain poorly understood. Most treatments do not differentiate between different phases of neuropathic pain pathophysiology and simply focus on blocking neurotransmission, producing(More)
NATURE REVIEWS | NEUROSCIENCE VOLUME 4 | MAY 2003 | 399 Stroke, a brain attack, is the third leading cause of death in the Western world. Worldwide, about 5.5 million people died from stroke in 1999 — approximately 10% of all deaths. There are more than 3.5 million survivors in the United States alone, and the disease remains a major cause of disability. In(More)
The initial Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations published in 1999 were intended to improve the quality of preclinical studies of purported acute stroke therapies. Although recognized as reasonable, they have not been closely followed nor rigorously validated. Substantial advances have occurred regarding the appropriate(More)
This review focuses on mechanisms and emerging concepts that drive the science of stroke in a therapeutic direction. Once considered exclusively a disorder of blood vessels, growing evidence has led to the realization that the biological processes underlying stroke are driven by the interaction of neurons, glia, vascular cells, and matrix components, which(More)
The penumbra is an area of brain tissue that is damaged but not yet dead after focal ischemia. The existence of a penumbra implies that therapeutic salvage is theoretically possible after stroke. The first decade of penumbral science investigated the ischemic regulation of electrophysiology, cerebral blood flow and metabolism. The second decade advanced our(More)
Presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals and postactivation depression at the Ia fibre-motor neuron (MN) synapses were compared in the upper and lower limbs of both sides in subjects from different populations: 49 spastic patients with hemiplegia [mainly with a lesion in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) area], two tetraplegics and 35 healthy subjects.(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-endopeptidases with multifactorial actions in central nervous system (CNS) physiology and pathology. Accumulating data suggest that MMPs have a deleterious role in stroke. By degrading neurovascular matrix, MMPs promote injury of the blood-brain barrier, edema and hemorrhage. By disrupting cell-matrix signaling and(More)
Although thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a stroke therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, its efficacy may be limited by neurotoxic side effects. Recently, proteolytic damage involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated. In experimental embolic stroke models, MMP inhibitors decreased cerebral(More)
The pattern and role of brain plasticity in stroke recovery has been incompletely characterized. Both ipsilesional and contralesional changes have been described, but it remains unclear how these relate to functional recovery. Our goal was to correlate brain activation patterns with tissue damage, hemodynamics, and neurologic status after temporary stroke,(More)