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The neuroectoderm of the vertebrate gastrula was proposed by Nieuwkoop to be regionalized into forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord by a two-step process. In the activation step, the Spemann gastrula organizer induces neuroectoderm with anterior character, followed by posteriorization by a transforming signal. Recently, simultaneous inhibition of(More)
Spatial variations in the levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling are a critical determinant of dorsoanterior-ventroposterior pattern in vertebrate embryos. Whereas BMP overexpression abolishes both head and trunk development, known single and double loss-of-function mutations in BMP inhibitors have less dramatic effects. We report that(More)
The dorsal-ventral axis of vertebrate embryos is thought to be specified by a gradient of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity, which, in part, arises through the interaction of dorsally expressed antagonists Chordin and Noggin with the ventralizing BMPs. The zebrafish mercedes(tm305), ogon(m60), and short tail(b180) mutations produce ventralized(More)
The vertebrate posterior body is formed by a combination of the gastrulation movements that shape the head and anterior trunk and posterior specific cell behaviors. Here, we investigated whether genes that regulate cell movements during gastrulation [no tail (ntl)/brachyury, knypek (kny) and pipetail (ppt)/wnt5] interact to regulate posterior body(More)
Quantitative and qualitative changes in protein methylation have been observed during the treatment of alfalfa cell cultures witl] fungal elicitor. Suspension cultures were treated with elicitor and fed with [~ in the presence of cycloheximide to inhibit protein synthesis. Several proteins were selectively methylated in response to elicitation and by 48hrs(More)
Native PAGE was used to identify qualitative and quantitative changes in apoplastic enzymes extracted from bean leaves during a hypersensitive response (HR) resulting from inoculation with an avirulent race of P. s. pv. phaseolicola. A burst of apoplastic peroxidase (EC-POX) activity was identified 2 h after inoculation. There was an apparent increase in(More)
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