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The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) has attracted recent attention as a critical player in mouse forebrain development and has been proposed to act as "head organizer" in mammals. However, the precise role of the AVE in induction and patterning of the anterior neuroectoderm is not yet known. Here we identified a 5'-flanking region of the mouse Otx2 gene(More)
Stem cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric division to maintain the dynamic equilibrium of the stem cell pool and also to generate a variety of differentiated cells. The homeostatic mechanism controlling the choice between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is poorly understood. We show here that ceh-16, encoding the C. elegans ortholog of the(More)
The molecular understanding of autophagy has originated almost exclusively from yeast genetic studies. Little is known about essential autophagy components specific to higher eukaryotes. Here we perform genetic screens in C. elegans and identify four metazoan-specific autophagy genes, named epg-2, -3, -4, and -5. Genetic analysis reveals that epg-2, -3, -4,(More)
How autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic system for bulk degradation, selectively degrades protein aggregates is poorly understood. Here, we show that several maternally derived germ P granule components are selectively eliminated by autophagy in somatic cells during C. elegans embryogenesis. The activity of sepa-1 is required for(More)
The present study has been designed to investigate the impact of dietary iodine intake on lipid metabolism in mice, including iodine deficiency and iodine excess. Different amounts of iodine mixed in the drinking water were continuously administered to mice. The body weights and the levels of urinary iodine were measured 8 months after the treatment.(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of iodine/selenium on the function of antigen presentation of peritoneal macrophages in rats and explore the immunological mechanisms of iodine/ selenium's role in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). METHODS Female Lewis rats were randomly divided into four groups including (1) low selenium and normal(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic system for degradation of long-lived proteins or damaged organelles. In this study, we have identified and characterized a new gene, epg-1, that plays a role in the autophagy pathway in C. elegans. Loss of function of epg-1 causes defects in various autophagy-regulated processes, including(More)
The C. elegans Hox gene egl-5 (ortholog of Drosophila Abdominal-B) is expressed in multiple tissues in the tail region and is involved in tail patterning. In this study, we identify and clone the corresponding C. elegans orthologs of the components of the heterotrimeric transcription factor NFY, nfya-1, nfyb-1 and nfyc-1 and demonstrate that mutations in(More)
Germline P granules are specialized protein/RNA aggregates that are found exclusively in germ cells in C. elegans. During the early embryonic divisions that generate germ blastomeres, aggregate-prone P granule components PGL-1 and PGL-3 that remain in the cytoplasm destined for somatic daughters are selectively removed by autophagy. Loss-of-function of(More)
Rapamycin-loaded chitosan/polylactic acid nanoparticles with size of about 300 nm in diameter were prepared through nanoprecipitation method using cholesterol-modified chitosan as a stabilizer. The surface coating of chitosan, which was demonstrated by zeta potential measurement, endowed the nanoparticles good retention ability at the procorneal area,(More)