Emmett Carolan

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A chemotaxis chamber has been developed to analyze both the velocity and the directionality of individual T cells in gradients of high molecular mass molecules over long periods of time. Employing this chamber, it is demonstrated that syncytia induced by HIV in SUP-T1 cell cultures release two T cell chemoattractants with approximate molecular masses of 30(More)
To better understand the mechanisms by which neutrophils migrate to the airway lumen during an inflammatory response, we constructed an in vitro model system to examine the interactions of human neutrophils, human lung epithelial cells, mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines. We directly compared neutrophil movement through three lung epithelial cell(More)
An in vitro model has been developed for analyzing the two developmental phases of human dendritic cell (DC) migration. Employing the age of the culture and the addition of GM-CSF, IL-4, and serum to regulate cellular phenotype, and glass coated with acid-precipitated human plasma proteins to facilitate persistent DC translocation, the model produces three(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropeptides and neutrophils are postulated to be important immune effector molecules and cells, respectively, in a variety of lung inflammatory conditions. METHODS We examined the effects of three lung neuropeptides, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and somatostatin and two relatively protease-resistant peptides, helodermin(More)
Objective and Design: To better understand the mechanisms by which cytokines induced neutrophils to migrate into the airways, we constructed a novel in vitro model system.¶Materials: Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE) monolayers were grown on top of permeable filters and human lung type II-like alveolar epithelial cell (A549) monolayers were grown(More)
We have previously reported that TNF alpha's ability to induce neutrophil transendothelial and transepithelial migration was largely dependent on the generation of IL-8 by the endothelial or pulmonary epithelial cells. To further explore the interrelationship of IL-8 with TNF alpha, we examined the migration of human neutrophils through noncellular barriers(More)
Stimulated neutrophil migration across lung endothelial and epithelial barriers is important in lung inflammatory processes. To better understand the interaction between chemoattractants, neutrophils, and endothelium and epithelium, we compared the ability of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), and platelet-activating factor(More)
Nedocromil sodium (Tilade) is an effective therapeutic agent against asthma and has been shown to exhibit antiinflammatory activity in vitro; however, its mode of action is yet to be described fully. Using an in vitro assay designed to mimic the extravasation of neutrophils from the peripheral circulation through cellular barriers to sites of inflammation,(More)
The mechanisms by which mediators and cytokines stimulate neutrophils to migrate across the lung epithelium are still unclear. We hypothesized that neutrophil transepithelial migration depends upon polarity of the epithelium. We therefore compared neutrophil migration through human lung Type II-like alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) monolayers grown on(More)
Analysis of thymic lymphocytes isolated from weanling mice has revealed a minority population able to form permeable, intercellular (gap) junctions. This population is largest in mice aged between 3 and 6 weeks, much smaller in fetal and new-born mice and undetectable in mice aged 12 weeks or more. Fractionation of the thymocytes on Percoll gradients or(More)