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New evidence and consensus has led to further revision of the McDonald Criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The use of imaging for demonstration of dissemination of central nervous system lesions in space and time has been simplified, and in some circumstances dissemination in space and time can be established by a single scan. These revisions(More)
Eight patients with worsening neuromyelitis optica were treated with rituximab to achieve B cell depletion. Treatment was well tolerated. Six of eight patients were relapse free and median attack rate declined from 2.6 attacks/patient/year to 0 attacks/patient/year (p = 0.0078). Seven of eight patients experienced substantial recovery of neurologic function(More)
OBJECTIVE To study antibody-independent contributions of B cells to inflammatory disease activity, and the immune consequences of B-cell depletion with rituximab, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS B-Cell effector-cytokine responses were compared between MS patients and matched controls using a 3-signal model of activation. The effects of(More)
Treatment with interferon beta-1b has substantial clinical benefit in the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis, yet the mechanism of action in the disease remains largely unknown. Gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase-2, 72-kd gelatinase) and B (matrix metalloproteinase-9, 92-kd gelatinase) are matrix metalloproteinases capable of enzymatic digestion(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether vitamin D status is associated with developing new T2 lesions or contrast-enhancing lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS EPIC is a 5-year longitudinal MS cohort study at the University of California at San Francisco. Participants had clinical evaluations,(More)
OBJECTIVE To use the new consensus definitions of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis (PRMS) to report the demographic, clinical, and natural history characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) that is progressive from the time of onset. DESIGN Retrospective study by database/chart review and telephone(More)
BACKGROUND The full spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcome, and the potential importance of regional or demographic features or viral triggers in paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), has yet to be fully characterised. Our aim was to determine some of these characteristics in children with MS. METHODS 137 children with MS and 96 control(More)
OBJECTIVE Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody selectively depleting CD20+ B cells, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated rituximab in adults with primary progressive MS (PPMS) through 96 weeks and safety through 122 weeks. METHODS Using 2:1 randomization, 439 PPMS patients received(More)
BACKGROUND The discovery and broad application of MRI in medicine has led to an increased awareness in the number of patients with incidental white matter pathology in the CNS. Routinely encountered in clinical practice, the natural history or evolution of such individuals with respect to their risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. (More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine if vitamin D status, a risk factor for multiple sclerosis, is associated with the rate of subsequent clinical relapses in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. METHODS This is a retrospective study of patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome who were consecutively recruited into a(More)