Emmanuel Godat

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Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a very toxic metal that causes DNA damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Despite many studies, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its high toxicity are not clearly understood. We show here that very low doses of Cd(2+) cause ER stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as evidenced by the induction of the unfolded protein(More)
Glutathione contributes to thiol-redox control and to extra-mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) maturation. To determine the physiological importance of these functions and sort out those that account for the GSH requirement for viability, we performed a comprehensive analysis of yeast cells depleted of or containing toxic levels of GSH. Both(More)
We report the direct introduction of biological samples into a high-resolution mass spectrometer, the LTQ-Orbitrap, as a fast tool for metabolomic studies. A proof of concept study was performed on yeast cell extracts that were introduced into the mass spectrometer by using flow injection analysis, with an acquisition time of 3 min. Typical mass spectra(More)
Cadmium is a heavy metal and a pollutant that can be found in large quantities in the environment from industrial waste. Its toxicity for living organisms could arise from its ability to alter thiol-containing cellular components. Glutathione is an abundant tripeptide (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly) that is described as the first line of defence against cadmium in many(More)
Chromate is a widespread pollutant as a waste of human activities. However, the mechanisms underlying its high toxicity are not clearly understood. In this work, we used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyse the physiological effects of chromate exposure in a eukaryote cell model. We show that chromate causes a strong decrease of sulfate(More)
We have exploited differences in the structures of S2' subsites of proteinase 3 (Pr3) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) to prepare new fluorogenic substrates specific for each of these proteases. The positively charged residue at position 143 in Pr3 prevents it from accommodating an arginyl residue at S2' and improves the binding of P2'(More)
Taking into account a previous report of an unidentified enzyme from macrophages acting as a kininase, the ability of cysteine proteases to degrade kinins has been investigated. Wild-type fibroblast lysates from mice, by contrast with cathepsin K-deficient lysates, hydrolysed BK (bradykinin), and released two metabolites, BK-(1-4) and BK-(5-9). Cathepsin K,(More)
The sulfur metabolic pathway plays a central role in cell metabolism. It provides the sulfur amino acids methionine and cysteine, which are essential for protein synthesis, homocysteine, which lies at a critical juncture of this pathway, S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor in the cell, and glutathione (GSH), which has many crucial functions(More)
Pharmacokinetic studies of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies necessitate the measurement of their biologically active fraction. The aim of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, based on its binding to a 20-mer peptide (P20) derived from the extracellular loop of human(More)
Mature, active cysteine cathepsins (CPs) were identified in human inflammatory bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) supernatants from patients suffering from silicosis by both western blot and surface plasmon resonance analyses. BALFs are not a reservoir of activatable proforms, since no autocatalytic maturation at acidic pH occurs. Cathepsin H is the most(More)