Emmanuel Fajardo

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Though the advantages of routine virological monitoring for patients on anti-retroviral therapy have been established, cost and complexity limit its full implementation. Monitoring is important for diagnosing virological failure early on, before the development of drug resistance mutations, and to trigger early adherence interventions. Simple and(More)
Rollout of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring is hampered by high costs and logistical difficulties associated with sample collection and transport. New strategies are needed to overcome these constraints. Dried blood spots from finger pricks have been shown to be more practical than the use of plasma specimens, and pooling strategies using plasma(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportion of invalid results generated by a CD4+ T-lymphocyte analyser used by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in field projects and identify factors associated with invalid results. METHODS We collated 25,616 CD4+ T-lymphocyte test results from 39 sites in nine countries for the years 2011 to 2013. Information about the setting,(More)
BACKGROUND HIV viral load (VL) testing is the gold standard for antiretroviral treatment monitoring, but many barriers exist to VL testing in resource-limited settings, including storage and transport limitations for whole blood and plasma. Data from various studies indicate that HIV RNA is stable beyond current recommendations. We conducted a systematic(More)
Though the advantages of routine virological monitoring for patients on anti-retroviral therapy have been established, cost and complexity limit its full implementation. Monitoring is important for diagnosing virological failure early on, before the development of drug resistance mutations, and to trigger early adherence interventions. Simple and(More)
BACKGROUND The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) is an automated molecular test for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance, recommended by the World Health Organization as the preferred diagnostic method for individuals presumed to have multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) or HIV-associated TB. We describe the performance of Xpert and key(More)
BACKGROUND CD4+ T-cell testing of blood specimens collected in standard EDTA Vacutainer tubes and transported at ambient temperature, must be completed within 48 hours with the BD FACSCount™ flow cytometer, restricting specimen collection in remote clinics with no on-site testing and limited specimen transport services. We conducted a study in Buhera(More)
Rollout of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring is hampered by high costs and logistical difficulties associated with sample collection and transport. New strategies are needed to overcome these constraints. Dried blood spots from finger pricks have been shown to be more practical than the use of plasma specimens, and pooling strategies using plasma(More)
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