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The impairment of NK cell functions in the course of HIV infection contributes to a decreased resistance against HIV and other pathogens. We analyzed the proportion of mature and immature NK cell subsets, and measured subsets of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha-producing NK and T cells in viremic or therapy-suppressed HIV-infected subjects, and noninfected control(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) have an instrumental role in the activation and function of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In humans, at least two distinct DC subsets have been characterized based on phenotypic markers: the myeloid DC (MDC) and the plasmacytoid DC (PDC). Both subsets are critical producers of cytokines (IL-12 for MDC and type I/II IFNs for(More)
IL-12 is a pivotal cytokine that links the innate and adaptive immune responses. TNF-alpha also plays a key role in orchestrating inflammation and immunity. The reciprocal influence of these two inflammatory mediators on each other may have significant impact on the cytokine balance that shapes the type and extent of immune responses. To investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs) in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of treatment interruptions (TI) on the evolution and persistence of drug-resistant viruses in chronically HIV-1-infected suppressed patients. METHODS The emergence of viral resistance to combination antiretroviral therapy was monitored in 11 suppressed chronically HIV-1-infected patients undergoing from one up to four(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-mediated immune reconstitution fails to restore the capacity of the immune system to spontaneously control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. METHODS A total of 23 HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, virologically suppressed subjects receiving ART (CD4(+) T-cell count, >450 cells/μL) were randomly assigned to(More)
Immunologic and virologic outcomes of treatment interruption were compared for 5 chronically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons who have maintained antiretroviral therapy-mediated virus suppression, as compared with 5 untreated controls. After a median interruption of 55 days of therapy accompanied by rebound of virus, reinitiated therapy(More)
The present study assessed antiviral T cell immune responses in 48 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children with a stable or decreasing CD4(+) T cell counts and different levels of viral control, in the presence or absence of antiretroviral therapy. Children with full (<40 copies/mL) or partial (<50,000 copies/mL) virus suppression and with a(More)
Therapeutic approaches seeking to limit the exposure to antiretroviral drugs while retaining the benefits of continuous therapy have become an active area of investigation in HIV therapy research. Although early attempts to use interruptions of therapy as auto-vaccination strategies have shown little success, much has been discovered in regards to(More)
Circulating monocytes exhibit an apoptotic resistance phenotype during HIV viremia in association with increased MT expression. MTs are known to play an important role in zinc metabolism and immune function. We now show, in a cross-sectional study using peripheral monocytes, that expression of MT1 isoforms E, G, H, and X is increased significantly in(More)