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The impairment of NK cell functions in the course of HIV infection contributes to a decreased resistance against HIV and other pathogens. We analyzed the proportion of mature and immature NK cell subsets, and measured subsets of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha-producing NK and T cells in viremic or therapy-suppressed HIV-infected subjects, and noninfected control(More)
IL-12 is a pivotal cytokine that links the innate and adaptive immune responses. TNF-alpha also plays a key role in orchestrating inflammation and immunity. The reciprocal influence of these two inflammatory mediators on each other may have significant impact on the cytokine balance that shapes the type and extent of immune responses. To investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-mediated immune reconstitution fails to restore the capacity of the immune system to spontaneously control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. METHODS A total of 23 HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, virologically suppressed subjects receiving ART (CD4(+) T-cell count, >450 cells/μL) were randomly assigned to(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) have an instrumental role in the activation and function of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In humans, at least two distinct DC subsets have been characterized based on phenotypic markers: the myeloid DC (MDC) and the plasmacytoid DC (PDC). Both subsets are critical producers of cytokines (IL-12 for MDC and type I/II IFNs for(More)
Circulating monocytes exhibit an apoptotic resistance phenotype during HIV viremia in association with increased MT expression. MTs are known to play an important role in zinc metabolism and immune function. We now show, in a cross-sectional study using peripheral monocytes, that expression of MT1 isoforms E, G, H, and X is increased significantly in(More)
BACKGROUND Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs) in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as(More)
We report the safety and tolerability of 87 infusions of lentiviral vector–modified autologous CD4 T cells (VRX496-T; trade name, Lexgenleucel-T) in 17 HIV patients with well-controlled viremia. Antiviral effects were studied during analytic treatment interruption in a subset of 13 patients. VRX496-T was associated with a decrease in viral load set points(More)
The HIV-1 vpr gene encodes a 14-kDa virion-packaged protein that has been implicated in viral pathogenesis. Vpr exhibits profound effects on human primary cells influencing proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cytokine production, in part through NF-kappaB-mediated transcription. NF-kappaB, a potent transcription factor, activates many(More)
OBJECTIVES Interest in targeting HIV reservoirs is fueling trials that may decrease reservoir size and/or induce viral replication. Therefore, we aimed to develop strategies to sensitively measure changes in these parameters in patients on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART). Achieving these goals may help evaluate the effects of future clinical trials. (More)
OBJECTIVE Increased circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been demonstrated in HIV-1-infected progressors. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruptions on plasma LPS levels. DESIGN AND METHODS Overall, 77 individuals participated in this study (51 HIV-positive and 26 healthy). Ten out of 51 HIV-positive(More)