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HIV-1 persists in peripheral blood monocytes in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with viral suppression, despite these cells being poorly susceptible to infection in vitro. Because very few monocytes harbor HIV-1 in vivo, we considered whether a subset of monocytes might be more permissive to infection. We show that a minor(More)
HIV-1 infection increases the risk and severity of malaria by poorly defined mechanisms. We investigated the effect of HIV-1(Ba-L) infection of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) on phagocytosis of opsonised P. falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Compared to mock-infected MDM, HIV-1 infection(More)
CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163(More)
Monocytes play a crucial role in controlling malaria infection. To facilitate our research into the development of antibody-mediated immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria we have established several novel malaria-specific flow cytometric phagocytosis assays based on ethidium bromide staining of DNA present in blood stage trophozoites. The first(More)
Tetraspanins are a family of membrane-organizing proteins that mediate diverse functions. Little is known of their expression or function in myeloid cells. Here, expression of CD9, CD53, CD63, and CD81, tetraspanins that have been implicated in HIV-1 pathogenesis, were characterized in normal monocyte subsets, in MDM, and in HIV-1-infected donors. We show(More)
Accurate detection of apoptotic cells is important for the determination of cell viability. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of the cell permeant SYTO 16 fluorescent dye for detecting early apoptotic mononuclear cells (MNCs) in normal donor blood with other apoptosis assays [i.e. Annexin-V, light scatter/7-amino-actinomycin-D (7-AAD) and(More)
Enteroendocrine cells of the gastric fundus are the predominant source of ghrelin production, although ghrelin gene transcripts and ghrelin-producing cells have been identified throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Various infectious, inflammatory and malignant disorders of the gastrointestinal system have been shown to alter ghrelin production and(More)
Discrimination between live and apoptotic cells is important for accurate determination of viable CD34(+) cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplant products. SYTO16 is a sensitive fluorescent dye for discriminating live from apoptotic leukocytes. The incidence of apoptotic leukocytes in paired samples of fresh and cryopreserved-thawed cord blood (CB) was(More)
BACKGROUND Poststorage, leuko-depleted blood transfusions have been associated with increased postoperative infections and improved allograft survival compared with prestorage leukocyte-depleted blood transfusion. Although the mechanism of this phenomenon remains to be fully elucidated, it is clear that the immunomodulatory effect is mediated by(More)
Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a post-respiratory tract infection condition of school-age children. Presentation is typically with acute onset calf pain and tenderness and refusal to walk or altered gait during the convalescent period of an influenza A or B infection. We describe a unique cluster of children with BACM following infection with(More)