Emma Rhiannon Simpson

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The role that intermediate states play in protein folding is the subject of intense investigation and in the case of ubiquitin has been controversial. We present fluorescence-detected kinetic data derived from single and double mixing stopped-flow experiments to show that the F45W mutant of ubiquitin (WT*), a well-studied single-domain protein and most(More)
Using the N-terminal 17-residue beta-hairpin of ubiquitin as a "host" for mutational studies, we have investigated the influence of the beta-turn sequence on protein stability and folding kinetics by replacing the native G-bulged turn (TLTGK) with more flexible analogues (TG3K and TG5K) and a series of four-residue type I' beta-turn sequences, commonly(More)
We have investigated the relative placement of rate-limiting energy barriers and the role of productive or obstructive intermediates on the folding pathway of yeast wild-type ubiquitin ( wt-Ub) containing the F45W mutation. To manipulate the folding barriers, we have designed a family of mutants in which stabilizing substitutions have been introduced(More)
The fast folding of small proteins is likely to be the product of evolutionary pressures that balance the search for native-like contacts in the transition state with the minimum number of stable non-native interactions that could lead to partially folded states prone to aggregation and amyloid formation. We have investigated the effects of non-native(More)
The N-terminal beta-hairpin sequence of ubiquitin has been implicated as a folding nucleation site. To extend and stabilise the ubiquitin folding nucleus, we have inserted an autonomously folding 14-residue peptide sequence beta4 which in isolation forms a highly populated beta-hairpin (>70%) stabilised by local interactions. NMR structural analysis of the(More)
Intact antibodies and antigen binding fragments (Fab) have been previously shown to form an alternatively folded state (AFS) at low pH. This state consists primarily of secondary structure interactions, with reduced tertiary structure content. The AFS can be distinguished from the molten globule state by the formation of nonnative structure and, in(More)
Antibodies are modular proteins consisting of domains that exhibit a beta-sandwich structure, the so-called immunoglobulin fold. Despite structural similarity, differences in folding and stability exist between different domains. In particular, the variable domain of the light chain V(L) is unusual as it is associated with misfolding diseases, including the(More)
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