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BACKGROUND There are no clear guidelines on renal transplantation in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis. METHODS We undertook a survey of transplant centres across Europe to assess whether there was consensus about how to manage transplantation in patients with vasculitis. We then identified 107 renal allograft(More)
Pain is a common symptom described by patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) but remains ineffectively managed. The aim of this audit was to determine what proportion of these patients report pain, then introduce the use of an analgesic ladder adapted specifically for ESKD, and finally re-evaluate the prevalence of pain symptoms, looking for an(More)
BACKGROUND Despite a recent increased awareness of the need for quality End of Life (EOL) care for patients with advanced kidney disease, there is no established method for measuring or auditing outcomes relating to EOL care in this population. METHODS We designed a one-page proforma, which was used to collect data on various aspects of EOL care relating(More)
Natural regulatory T (nTreg) cells generated in the thymus are essential throughout life for the maintenance of T-cell homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmunity. T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD28-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB and (J)un (N)-terminal kinase pathways is known to play a key role in nTreg cell development but many of the predicted(More)
THE PROBLEM In December 2010, The Lancet published the findings of a global independent commission of 20 professional and academic leaders who came together to develop a shared vision and a common strategy for education in medicine. Their problem statement was damning, “..fresh health challenges loom. . Professional education has not kept pace with these(More)
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