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Many currently used and candidate vaccine adjuvants are particulate in nature, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Here, we show that particulate adjuvants, including biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) and polystyrene microparticles, dramatically enhance secretion of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by dendritic cells (DCs). The(More)
Autophagy is a key regulator of cellular homeostasis that can be activated by pathogen-associated molecules and recently has been shown to influence IL-1β secretion by macrophages. However, the mechanisms behind this are unclear. Here, we describe a novel role for autophagy in regulating the production of IL-1β in antigen-presenting cells. After treatment(More)
We examined the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the induction of heat shock proteins (hsps) during stress response. Exposure of HL-60 human myelocytic cells to 42 degrees C induced both hsp72 and hsp27. In the presence of the antioxidant molecules pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate or 1,10-phenanthroline induction of hsp72 and 27 was(More)
Members of the caspase family of cysteine proteases have been firmly established to play key roles in signal transduction cascades that culminate in apoptosis (programmed cell death). Caspases are normally expressed as inactive precursor enzymes (zymogens) that become activated during apoptosis and proceed to dismantle the cell from within. To date, three(More)
Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) is a stress-inducible protein that prevents apoptosis induced by a wide range of cytotoxic agents by an as yet undefined mechanism. The caspase family of cysteine proteases have been attributed a central role in the execution of apoptosis. However, several cases of caspase-independent apoptosis have been recently reported,(More)
Proteins possessing the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) motif have been implicated in pathways leading to activation of caspases or NF-kappaB in the context of apoptosis or inflammation, respectively. Here we report the identification of a novel protein, CARDINAL, that contains a CARD motif and also exhibits a high degree of homology to the C terminus of(More)
The mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract are continually exposed to an enormous antigenic load of microbial and dietary origin, yet homeostasis is maintained. Pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) have a key role in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial barrier and in promoting maturation of the mucosal immune system. Commensal bacteria(More)
Smac/DIABLO is a mitochondrial protein that potentiates some forms of apoptosis, possibly by neutralizing one or more members of the IAP family of apoptosis inhibitory proteins. Smac has been shown to exit mitochondria and enter the cytosol during apoptosis triggered by UV- or gamma-irradiation. Here, we report that Smac/DIABLO export from mitochondria into(More)
Significant advances in our understanding of innate immunity have been made following the identification of three families of pathogen sensors: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Members of the TLR family recognize bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa; NLRs with known functions detect bacteria, and RLRs(More)
The Apaf-1 apoptosome is a multi-subunit caspase-activating scaffold that is assembled in response to diverse forms of cellular stress that culminate in apoptosis. To date, most studies on apoptosome composition and function have used apoptosomes reassembled from recombinant or purified proteins. Thus, the precise composition of native apoptosomes remains(More)