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BACKGROUND Nephronophthisis (NPHP), a rare recessive cystic kidney disease, is the most frequent genetic cause of chronic renal failure in children and young adults. Mutations in nine genes (NPHP1-9) have been identified. NPHP can be associated with retinal degeneration (Senior-Løken syndrome), brainstem and cerebellar anomalies (Joubert syndrome), or liver(More)
The vaccinia virus (VACV) A41L gene encodes a secreted 30 kDa glycoprotein that is nonessential for virus replication but affects the host response to infection. The A41 protein shares sequence similarity with another VACV protein that binds CC chemokines (called vCKBP, or viral CC chemokine inhibitor, vCCI), and strains of VACV lacking the A41L gene(More)
Subsets of NK cells can have distinct functions. Here, we report that >25% of human peripheral blood NK cells express HLA-DR after culture with IL-2. This can be driven by an expansion of a small subset of NK cells expressing HLA-DR, in contrast to previous assumptions that HLA-DR is upregulated on previously negative cells. HLA-DR-expressing NK cells(More)
Although T cell receptor (TCR)gammadelta+ and TCRalphabeta+ cells are commonly viewed as functionally independent, their relatedness and potential interdependence remain enigmatic. Here we have identified a gene profile that distinguishes mouse gammadelta cell populations from conventional alphabeta T cells. However, this profile was also expressed by sets(More)
This review builds on evidence that cell-mediated immune responses to bacteria, viruses, parasites, and tumors are an integration of conventional and unconventional T-cell activities. Whereas conventional T cells provide clonal antigen-specific responses, unconventional T cells profoundly regulate conventional T cells, often suppressing their activities(More)
The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed on the surface of both resting and activated T lymphocytes. We describe in this study the endocytosis of CXCR3 using T lymphocytes and CXCR3 transfectants. Chemokine-induced CXCR3 down-regulation occurred in a rapid, dose-dependent manner, with CXCL11 the most potent and efficacious ligand. Endocytosis was mediated(More)
Chemokine receptor CCR3 is highly expressed by eosinophils and signals in response to binding of the eotaxin family of chemokines, which are up-regulated in allergic disorders. Consequently, CCR3 blockade is of interest as a possible therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic disease. We have described previously a bispecific antagonist of CCR1 and(More)
OBJECTIVE The chemokine CXCL16 serves as a scavenger receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein and as an adhesion molecule and chemoattractant for cells expressing the receptor CXCR6. A commonly occurring CXCL16 allele has been described containing 2 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in complete linkage disequilibrium, although the effects(More)
Design of dual antagonists for the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 will be greatly facilitated by knowledge of the structural differences of their binding sites. Thus, we computationally predicted the binding site of the dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist N-dimethyl-N-[4-[[[2-(4-methylphenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzohepten-8-yl](More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The chemokine receptor CXCR3 directs migration of T-cells in response to the ligands CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10 and CXCL11/I-TAC. Both ligands and receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we describe the molecular mechanism by which two synthetic(More)