Emma L. Turnbull

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Identification of the transmitted/founder virus makes possible, for the first time, a genome-wide analysis of host immune responses against the infecting HIV-1 proteome. A complete dissection was made of the primary HIV-1-specific T cell response induced in three acutely infected patients. Cellular assays, together with new algorithms which identify sites(More)
Cystic fibrosis arises from the misfolding and premature degradation of CFTR Delta F508, a Cl- ion channel with a single amino acid deletion. Yet, the quality-control machinery that selects CFTR Delta F508 for degradation and the mechanism for its misfolding are not well defined. We identified an ER membrane-associated ubiquitin ligase complex containing(More)
Multiple lines of evidence support a role for CD8(+) T cells in control of acute/early HIV replication; however, features of the primary HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell response that may impact on the efficiency of containment of early viral replication remain poorly defined. In this study, we performed a novel, comprehensive analysis of the kinetics of(More)
The hallmark of chronic viral infections is a progressive exhaustion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells that leads to persisting viral replication. It is generally believed that exhaustion is a consequence of the accumulation of multiple inhibitory receptors on CD8(+) T cells that makes them dysfunctional. Here, we show that during human chronic HIV-1(More)
The intestinal immune system responds to ingested antigens in a variety of ways, ranging from tolerance to full immunity. How T cells are instructed to make these differential responses is still unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) sample enteric antigens in the lamina propria and Peyer's patches, and transport them within the patch or to mesenteric nodes where(More)
In the present study, we analyzed the functional profile of CD8+ T-cell responses directed against autologous transmitted/founder HIV-1 isolates during acute and early infection, and examined whether multifunctionality is required for selection of virus escape mutations. Seven anti-retroviral therapy-naïve subjects were studied in detail between 1 and 87(More)
CF is an inherited autosomal recessive disease whose lethality arises from malfunction of CFTR, a single chloride (Cl-) ion channel protein. CF patients harbor mutations in the CFTR gene that lead to misfolding of the resulting CFTR protein, rendering it inactive and mislocalized. Hundreds of CF-related mutations have been identified, many of which abrogate(More)
Cdc37 is a molecular chaperone that interacts with a range of clients and co-chaperones, forming various high molecular mass complexes. Cdc37 sequence homology among species is low. High homology between yeast and metazoan proteins is restricted to the extreme N-terminal region, which is known to bind clients that are predominantly protein kinases. We show(More)
The ability of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to recognize epitope variants resulting from viral sequence variation in vivo may affect the ease with which HIV-1 can escape T cell control and impact on the rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected humans. Here, we studied the functional cross-reactivity of CD8 responses to HIV-1 epitopes(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) present peripheral Ags to T cells in lymph nodes, but also influence their differentiation (tolerance/immunity, Th1/Th2). To investigate how peripheral conditions affect DC properties and might subsequently regulate T cell differentiation, we examined the effects of a potent DC-activating, TLR-4-mediated stimulus, LPS, on rat intestinal(More)