Emma L. Johnstone

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Until recently, task-switching (TS) studies have focused on performance costs incurred when adults switch between tasks. Switch costs appear to decrease throughout childhood and adolescence (Cepeda, Kramer, & Gonzalez de Sather, 2001), perhaps reflecting the development of executive functioning (EF). Efficient switching relies on two EF processes:(More)
Bacterial communities are vital for many economically and ecologically important processes. The role of bacterial community composition in determining ecosystem functioning depends critically on interactions among bacterial taxa. Several studies have shown that, despite a predominance of negative interactions in communities, bacteria are able to display(More)
Optimal control as a branch of mathematics utilizing techniques from calculus of variations will be explored. We will discover the techniques underpinning solving a simple problem before a Hamiltonian approach is defined and used. The later will, in combination with Pontryagins principle provide the basis for finding a number of physical results related to(More)
In previous studies, causal contingencies have been suggested to play an important role in causality judgments. However, little is known about how children might use causal contingencies to inform their judgments of causality, especially under uncertainty. In the current study, we found that young children are sensitive to both conditional and unconditional(More)
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