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Analogous to learning and memory storage, long-term potentiation (LTP) is divided into induction and maintenance phases. Testing the hypothesis that the mechanism of LTP maintenance stores information requires reversing this mechanism in vivo and finding out whether long-term stored information is lost. This was not previously possible. Recently however,(More)
PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice(More)
A widely accepted notion for a process underlying memory formation is that learning changes the efficacy of synapses by the mechanism of synaptic plasticity. While there is compelling evidence of changes in synaptic efficacy observed after learning, demonstration of persistent synaptic changes accompanying memory has been elusive. We report that acquisition(More)
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