Emma H Baker

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In animals, glucose concentrations are 3-20 times lower in lung lining fluid than in plasma. In humans, glucose concentrations are normally low (<1 mmol/l) in nasal and bronchial fluid, but they are elevated by inflammation or hyperglycemia. Furthermore, elevated bronchial glucose is associated with increased respiratory infection in intensive care(More)
(a) To describe the glucose content of normal human airways secretions; (b) to observe the effects of hyperglycemia and airways inflammation on airways glucose. Observational studies. (a) St George's Hospital Medical School; (b) diabetes mellitus outpatient clinics; (c) adult general intensive care unit. Nineteen healthy volunteers, 24 volunteers with acute(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperglycaemia is associated with poor outcomes from pneumonia, myocardial infarction and stroke, but the effect of blood glucose on outcomes from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) has not been established. Recent UK guidelines do not comment on measurement or control of blood glucose in AECOPD. A study was(More)
Pathophysiological stress from acute illness causes metabolic disturbance, including altered hepatic glucose metabolism, increased peripheral insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Acute hyperglycaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients in intensive care units and patients with acute respiratory disease. The present review will(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a risk factor for respiratory infection, and hyperglycaemia is associated with increased glucose in airway surface liquid and risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether elevation of basolateral/blood glucose concentration promotes airway Staphylococcus aureus growth and whether pretreatment with the(More)
For over 50 years, glucose has been recognised to cross the lung epithelial barrier and be transported by lung epithelial cells. However, until recently, research into these processes focused on their effects on lung liquid volume. Here, we consider a newly identified role for pulmonary glucose transport in maintaining low airway surface liquid (ASL)(More)
The glucose concentration of the airway surface liquid (ASL) is much lower than that in blood and is tightly regulated by the airway epithelium. ASL glucose is elevated in patients with viral colds, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. Elevated ASL glucose is also associated with increased incidence of respiratory infection.(More)
Lung disease and elevation of blood glucose are associated with increased glucose concentration in the airway surface liquid (ASL). Raised ASL glucose is associated with increased susceptibility to infection by respiratory pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We have previously shown that the anti-diabetes drug, metformin,(More)
BACKGROUND Liddle's syndrome is a rare inherited form of hypertension in which mutations of the epithelial sodium channel result in increased renal sodium reabsorption. Essential hypertension in black patients also shows clinical features of sodium retention so we screened black people for the T594M mutation, the most commonly identified sodium-channel(More)
In Liddle's syndrome, a rare inherited form of hypertension, epithelial sodium channel mutations appear to cause high blood pressure by increasing sodium reabsorption through sodium channels in the renal distal tubule. This increase in channel activity has not been confirmed previously by in vivo measurement. We have made transnasal potential difference(More)