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BACKGROUND Hyperglycaemia is associated with poor outcomes from pneumonia, myocardial infarction and stroke, but the effect of blood glucose on outcomes from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) has not been established. Recent UK guidelines do not comment on measurement or control of blood glucose in AECOPD. A study was(More)
Pathophysiological stress from acute illness causes metabolic disturbance, including altered hepatic glucose metabolism, increased peripheral insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Acute hyperglycaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients in intensive care units and patients with acute respiratory disease. The present review will(More)
Life time smoking of ready made cigarettes can be readily quantified as "pack years" smoked, but methods for measuring loose tobacco use are less well established. In this study the frequency of loose tobacco use by 247 hospital in-patients was determined; 64% were current or ex-smokers, 41.3% of whom (25.9% of participants) had smoked loose tobacco. A(More)
Glucose is not detectable in airways secretions of normoglycaemic volunteers, but is present at 1-9 mmol x l(-1) in airways secretions from people with hyperglycaemia. These observations suggest the existence of a blood glucose threshold at which glucose appears in airways secretions, similar to that seen in renal and salivary epithelia. In the present(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary decline accelerates in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) proportional to severity of glucose intolerance, but mechanisms are unclear. In people without CF, airway glucose (AG) concentrations are elevated when blood glucose (BG)> or =8 mmol L(-1) (airway threshold), and are associated with acquisition of respiratory infection. (More)
The T594M polymorphism of the epithelial sodium channel is found in approximately 5% of people of African origin and is significantly associated with high blood pressure. Although the T594M polymorphism could increase renal sodium absorption through affected channels, it is not known whether this polymorphism causes hypertension. Amiloride specifically(More)
OBJECTIVES (a). To describe the glucose content of normal human airways secretions; (b). to observe the effects of hyperglycemia and airways inflammation on airways glucose. DESIGN Observational studies. SETTINGS (a). St George's Hospital Medical School; (b). diabetes mellitus outpatient clinics; (c). adult general intensive care unit. PATIENTS(More)
BACKGROUND Liddle's syndrome is a rare inherited form of hypertension in which mutations of the epithelial sodium channel result in increased renal sodium reabsorption. Essential hypertension in black patients also shows clinical features of sodium retention so we screened black people for the T594M mutation, the most commonly identified sodium-channel(More)
The prevalence of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) and glucose intolerance (IGT) has risen dramatically over the past 20 years as survival has increased for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Diabetes is primarily caused by pancreatic damage, which reduces insulin secretion, but glucose tolerance is also modified by factors that alter insulin(More)
In animals, glucose concentrations are 3-20 times lower in lung lining fluid than in plasma. In humans, glucose concentrations are normally low (<1 mmol/l) in nasal and bronchial fluid, but they are elevated by inflammation or hyperglycemia. Furthermore, elevated bronchial glucose is associated with increased respiratory infection in intensive care(More)