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The crystal structure of the human cyclinA-cyclin-dependent kinase2 (CDK2)-ATP complex has been determined at 2.3 A resolution. CyclinA binds to one side of CDK2's catalytic cleft, inducing large conformational changes in its PSTAIRE helix and T-loop. These changes activate the kinase by realigning active site residues and relieving the steric blockade at(More)
The importance of long-term synaptic plasticity as a cellular substrate for learning and memory is well established. By contrast, little is known about how learning and memory are regulated by voltage-gated ion channels that integrate synaptic information. We investigated this question using mice with general or forebrain-restricted knockout of the HCN1(More)
In contrast to our increasingly detailed understanding of how synaptic plasticity provides a cellular substrate for learning and memory, it is less clear how a neuron's voltage-gated ion channels interact with plastic changes in synaptic strength to influence behavior. We find, using generalized and regional knockout mice, that deletion of the HCN1 channel(More)
The replication of bovine papilloma virus (BPV) DNA in vivo requires two viral-encoded proteins, E1 and E2, while all other proteins are derived from the host. We described previously the isolation of the E1 protein and showed that it contains multiple functions required for BPV DNA replication. The BPV transcription factor E2 was shown by others to(More)
Transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is a multisubunit protein complex essential for both the initiation of RNA polymerase class II (pol II)-catalyzed transcription and nucleotide excision repair of DNA. Recent studies have shown that TFIIH copurifies with the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-activating kinase complex (CAK) that includes cdk7, cyclin H, and(More)
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a processivity factor required for DNA polymerase delta (or epsilon)-catalyzed DNA synthesis. When loaded onto primed DNA templates by replication factor C (RFC), PCNA acts to tether the polymerase to DNA, resulting in processive DNA chain elongation. In this report, we describe the identification of two separate(More)
Human replication factor C (hRFC) is a multi-subunit protein complex capable of supporting proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-dependent DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases delta and epsilon. The hRFC complex consists of five different subunits with apparent molecular masses of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kDa. We have previously reported the expression of a(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are required for cell cycle progression. Two potentially significant Cdk substrates in human cells are the human single-stranded binding protein (HSSB or RPA), which plays an essential role in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, and the tumor suppressor p107 which acts to negatively regulate cell growth. In this(More)
In eukaryotes, processive DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerases delta and epsilon (pol delta and epsilon) requires the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). It has recently been shown that in humans (h), the PCNA function, required for both DNA replication and nucleotide excision repair, can be inactivated by p21(CIP1) due to a specific(More)
PURPOSE Metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is generally an incurable disease with variable response to imatinib. We aimed to develop prognostic nomograms to predict overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients treated with imatinib. METHODS Nomograms were developed in a training cohort (n=330) of patients treated(More)