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Memory is composed of three stages: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. By impairing acquisition processes, benzodiazepines cause anterograde amnesia while leaving intact information learned before the drug was taken. In some circumstances, retrieval of this information is even improved by benzodiazepines. It has been hypothesized that this(More)
RATIONALE Soya foods are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens with weak agonist activity at oestrogen receptors. Oestrogen treatment has been found to improve memory in men awaiting gender reassignment and in post-menopausal women. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of supervised high versus low soya diets on attention, memory and frontal lobe function in(More)
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of nicotine (2 mg administered by inhalator) on the cognitive performance of male and female non-smoking students and on mood changes following a moderately stressful task. The groups were matched for age and IQ, and did not differ in pre-test measures of anxiety, depression, extroversion(More)
It is notoriously difficult to assess the contribution of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines to the cognitive impairments that they produce. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether a similar pattern of cognitive impairment would be seen in conditions when subjects felt equally sleepy as the result of sleep deprivation. The(More)
The purpose of this experiment was to compare, in three tasks of attention, the impairment caused by lorazepam (1 and 2.5 mg) administered to young volunteers with the impairment that results from aging. Performance on digit cancellation (DC), digit-symbol substitution (DSS), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) was significantly impaired by(More)
In the first experiment male chicks were exposed to neutral and cat odours at days 4, 7, or 10 after hatching. Of the chicks tested at day 4, few made contact with either odour cloth, but those tested at day 7 made fewer contacts with the cat odour cloth, compared with the neutral odour, spent less time in contact with it, and spent more time in the zone(More)
UNLABELLED The amnesic properties of benzodiazepines result from an impairment in explicit (conscious) acquisition of new material. RATIONALE Explicit encoding of new material has consistently resulted in an increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left prefrontal cortex, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET). OBJECTIVE PET was(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether differences in cognitive function between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients relate to differences in endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine receptor and/or benzodiazepine binding. METHODS Seventeen grade-I hepatic encephalopathic patients (nine alcoholic, eight non-alcoholic) were compared with 10 matched(More)
The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor complex is involved in the mechanism of long-term potentiation, which is thought to be the biological basis of learning and memory. This complex can be manipulated in a number of ways, one of which is through the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor coagonist site. The effects of Bioglycin(Konapharma, Pratteln,(More)