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In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of nicotine (2 mg administered by inhalator) on the cognitive performance of male and female non-smoking students and on mood changes following a moderately stressful task. The groups were matched for age and IQ, and did not differ in pre-test measures of anxiety, depression, extroversion(More)
Rationale: Soya foods are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens with weak agonist activity at oestrogen receptors. Oestrogen treatment has been found to improve memory in men awaiting gender reassignment and in post-menopausal women. Objective: To examine the effects of supervised high versus low soya diets on attention, memory and frontal lobe function in(More)
It is notoriously difficult to assess the contribution of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines to the cognitive impairments that they produce. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether a similar pattern of cognitive impairment would be seen in conditions when subjects felt equally sleepy as the result of sleep deprivation. The(More)
The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor complex is involved in the mechanism of long-term potentiation, which is thought to be the biological basis of learning and memory. This complex can be manipulated in a number of ways, one of which is through the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor coagonist site. The effects of Bioglycin(Konapharma, Pratteln,(More)
Memory is composed of three stages: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. By impairing acquisition processes, benzodiazepines cause anterograde amnesia while leaving intact information learned before the drug was taken. In some circumstances, retrieval of this information is even improved by benzodiazepines. It has been hypothesized that this(More)
The amnesic properties of benzodiazepines result from an impairment in explicit (conscious) acquisition of new material. Rationale: Explicit encoding of new material has consistently resulted in an increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left prefrontal cortex, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Objective: PET was used to(More)
In an open study, self-ratings of bodily symptoms, mood (before and after stress), and cognitive performance were investigated in 25 women (aged 54-66 years) who for approximately 10 years had been taking an oral preparation of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), tibolone (Livial; 2.5 mg/ day). Tibolone has a unique profile, with estrogenic, progestogenic,(More)
The purpose of this experiment was to compare, in three tasks of attention, the impairment caused by lorazepam (1 and 2.5 mg) administered to young volunteers with the impairment that results from aging. Performance on digit cancellation (DC), digit-symbol substitution (DSS), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) was significantly impaired by(More)
Marked sex differences have been reported in behavioural responses of rats 24 h after exposure to a brief period of restraint (RT) stress. In the present study, differences in benzodiazepine (BZ) binding between male and female rat litter-mates randomly allocated to control or RT groups were investigated 24 h after RT. Scatchard analysis, using [3H](More)
The responses of rats that had been extensively handled for 18 days were compared in the holeboard with those of rats that had received handling for only 4 days before the test. The extensively handled group showed slower between-day habituation of exploratory head-dipping. They did not differ in the number of head-dips, but spent longer head-dipping, at(More)