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BACKGROUND Lithium and valproate (VPA) are used for treating bipolar disorder. The mechanism of mood stabilization has not been elucidated, but the role of inositol has gained substantial support. Lithium inhibition of inositol monophosphatase, an enzyme required for inositol recycling and de novo synthesis, suggested the hypothesis that lithium depletes(More)
Lithium (Li(+)), a mood stabilizer, has profound effects on cultured neurons, offering an opportunity to investigate its cellular biological effects. Here we consider the effect of Li(+) and other psychotropic drugs on growth cone morphology and chemotaxis. Li(+) inhibits GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) at a therapeutically relevant concentration.(More)
OBJECTIVES Lithium, valproic acid (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) are commonly used mood stabilizers, but their therapeutic mechanism is unclear. These drugs all cause the same morphological effects on postnatal rat neuronal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) growth cones via an inositol-reversible mechanism. However, due to limitations in earlier analysis, the(More)
Lithium (Li(+)) is a common treatment for bipolar mood disorder, a major psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of more than 1%. Risk of bipolar disorder is heavily influenced by genetic predisposition, but is a complex genetic trait and, to date, genetic studies have provided little insight into its molecular origins. An alternative approach is to(More)
Thousands of documents written in Syriac script by early Christian theologians are of unknown provenance and uncertain date, partly due to a shortage of human expertise. This paper addresses the problem of attribution by developing a novel algorithm for offline handwriting style identification and document retrieval, demonstrated on a set of documents in(More)
BACKGROUND Focal therapy is being offered as a viable alternative for men with localised prostate cancer (PCa), but it is unclear which men may be suitable. OBJECTIVE To determine the proportion of men with localised PCa who are potentially suitable for focal therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Our institutional transperineal template(More)
Propylisopropylacetic acid (PIA) is a constitutional isomer of valproic acid (VPA). It has previously been found to be a weak antiepileptic, but in common with mood stabilizers, causes inositol depletion and growth cone spreading, suggesting the basis of a new series of mood stabilizers. To assess this possibility, we have compared the effects of racemic(More)
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