Emma Claire Paish

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Mucins are a large family of glycoproteins expressed by many epithelial cells and their malignant counterparts. Much interest has been focused on expression of its members in breast cancer because of their potential role as prognostic indicators and their involvement in cancer therapy. We have examined 1447 cases of invasive breast carcinoma with a(More)
Breast carcinomas are often infiltrated by inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages and T lymphocytes, but the significance of these cells remains unclear. One possible role of these inflammatory cells is that they represent a cell-mediated immune response against the carcinoma. CD8(+) lymphocytes are a known crucial component of cell-mediated immunity.(More)
PURPOSE Response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlates with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. It is usually easier to decide treatment strategies in cases of double-positive/-negative phenotypes than in single-positive tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS We have examined a large and well-characterized series of primary(More)
Vascular endothelial cell growth factors (VEGF)-A, -C and -D have potent angio and lymphangiogenic functions in experimental models, although their role in the progression of human breast cancer is unclear. The aims of the current study were to examine the relationship between the expression of the aforementioned growth factors with the angio and(More)
Studies in mice have shown that thymic-derived CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (T reg; FOXP3+ lymphocytes) inhibit an antitumour immune response. Additional studies have also reported that the T reg population increases in peripheral blood and tumour tissues from patients with cancer. However, the relationship between the T reg population and the patient(More)
Controversy exists regarding the topography of lymph vessels in breast cancer, their usefulness as prognostic factors, relationship with angiogenesis and whether active lymphangiogenesis occurs within the tumour. A series of 177 well-characterized breast cancers, with long term follow up, were stained with D2-40, CD31 and CD34. Distribution of lymphatics(More)
AIM To assess the expression and coexpression of a range of different biomarkers that have been used to define breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype (BP) and their relationship with prognosis in an attempt to refine the definition of BP and to evaluate the reliability of using a single biomarker to identify these tumours. METHODS AND RESULTS The(More)
PURPOSE Previous conflicting results about the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta in breast cancer may be explained by contribution of isoforms, of which five exist. Our aim was to elucidate the prognostic significance of ERbeta1, ERbeta2, and ERbeta5 by immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of breast carcinomas with long-term(More)
Advances in understanding the molecular basis of breast cancer has necessitated a definition of improved indicators of prognosis that are central to the underlying cancer biology and that reflect the heterogeneous nature of the disease. This study investigates the pattern of expression of the steroid receptor co-regulators NCOA1/SRC1, NCOA3/RAC3,(More)
Although the favourable role of T lymphocyte populations in different tumour types is established, that of B cells is still a matter of debate and needs further clarification. The presence of tumour-infiltrating B cells may represent an antibody response against breast tumour antigens. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the density and localisation(More)