Learn More
Breast carcinomas are often infiltrated by inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages and T lymphocytes, but the significance of these cells remains unclear. One possible role of these inflammatory cells is that they represent a cell-mediated immune response against the carcinoma. CD8(+) lymphocytes are a known crucial component of cell-mediated immunity.(More)
PURPOSE Previous conflicting results about the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta in breast cancer may be explained by contribution of isoforms, of which five exist. Our aim was to elucidate the prognostic significance of ERbeta1, ERbeta2, and ERbeta5 by immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of breast carcinomas with long-term(More)
PURPOSE Response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlates with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. It is usually easier to decide treatment strategies in cases of double-positive/-negative phenotypes than in single-positive tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS We have examined a large and well-characterized series of primary(More)
Although the favourable role of T lymphocyte populations in different tumour types is established, that of B cells is still a matter of debate and needs further clarification. The presence of tumour-infiltrating B cells may represent an antibody response against breast tumour antigens. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the density and localisation(More)
Accurate predictive markers of chemotherapeutic response in early breast cancer are still lacking. The role of tumour growth fraction as a predictor of response to chemotherapy was assessed in early breast cancer. In this study, immunohistochemical expression of MIB1 was studied in a well-characterised series of early (Stages I and II) node-negative breast(More)
Advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of breast cancer have necessitated a definition of more sensitive and specific indicators of prognosis that are central to the underlying cancer biology and that reflect the complicated and heterogeneous nature of the disease. This study investigates the expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule(More)
INTRODUCTION IL-17 plays an important role in autoimmunity, promoting autoimmunity, inflammation and invasion in multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and type I diabetes. The role of IL-17 in cancer is unclear, however, as there are few studies examining IL-17 protein expression in cancer. We therefore examined IL-17 protein expression in human breast(More)
The presence of vascular invasion (VI), encompassing both lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and blood vascular invasion (BVI), in breast cancer has been found to be a poor prognostic factor. It is not clear, however, which type of VI plays the major role in metastasis. The aims of this study were to use an endothelial subtype specific immunohistochemical(More)
AIM To assess the expression and coexpression of a range of different biomarkers that have been used to define breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype (BP) and their relationship with prognosis in an attempt to refine the definition of BP and to evaluate the reliability of using a single biomarker to identify these tumours. METHODS AND RESULTS The(More)
In a previous study on a small series of breast cancers, we developed objective methods for the assessment of vascular invasion (VI), using immunohistochemical staining. We found that VI was predominantly lymphovascular invasion (LVI), with minimal contribution of blood vascular invasion (BVI). The aims of the current study were: (a) to assess the(More)