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To study the pathogenesis of central nervous system abnormalities in Down syndrome (DS), we have analyzed a new genetic model of DS, the partial trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mouse. Ts65Dn mice have an extra copy of the distal aspect of mouse chromosome 16, a segment homologous to human chromosome 21 that contains much of the genetic material responsible for the DS(More)
The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate coexists with the peptide known as substance P in primary afferents that respond to painful stimulation. Because blockers of glutamate receptors reliably reduce pain behaviour, it is assumed that 'pain' messages are mediated by glutamate action on dorsal horn neurons. The contribution of substance P, however, is(More)
The localization of substance P in brain regions that coordinate stress responses and receive convergent monoaminergic innervation suggested that substance P antagonists might have psychotherapeutic properties. Like clinically used antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, substance P antagonists suppressed isolation-induced vocalizations in guinea pigs. In a(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a mercurial-insensitive, water-selective channel that is expressed in astroglia and basolateral plasma membranes of epithelia in the kidney collecting duct, airways, stomach, and colon. A targeting vector for homologous recombination was constructed using a 7-kb SacI AQP4 genomic fragment in which part of the exon 1 coding sequence was(More)
Age-related degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. With aging, the partial trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mouse model of Down's syndrome exhibited reductions in BFCN size and number and regressive changes in the hippocampal terminal fields of these neurons with respect to(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We have demonstrated in a previous study that superoxide radicals play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction, using a transgenic mouse model of distal middle cerebral artery occlusion, permanent ipsilateral cerebral carotid artery occlusion, and 1-hour contralateral cerebral carotid artery occlusion that produced(More)
A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called "Down syndrome region" of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of(More)
Administration of methamphetamine (METH) to rats and nonhuman primates causes loss of terminals in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The mechanism by which METH causes its neurotoxicity is not known. To evaluate further the role of oxyradicals in METH-induced neurotoxicity, we have tested its effects in CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD) transgenic (Tg)(More)
Transient global cerebral ischemia resulting from cardiac arrest is known to cause selective death in vulnerable neurons, including hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. It is postulated that oxygen radicals, superoxide in particular, are involved in cell death processes. To test this hypothesis, we first used in situ imaging of superoxide radical distribution(More)
Apoptotic neuronal cell death has recently been associated with the development of infarction after cerebral ischemia. In a variety of studies, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) has been shown to protect the brain from ischemic injury. A possible role for CuZn-SOD-related modulation of neuronal viability is suggested by the finding that CuZn-SOD inhibits(More)