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The present experiments investigated the sunk cost error, an apparently irrational tendency to persist with an initial investment, in rats. This issue is of interest because some have argued that nonhuman animals do not commit this error. Two or three fixed-ratio (FR) response requirements were arranged on one lever, and an escape option was arranged on a(More)
Although choice between two alternatives has been widely researched, fewer studies have examined choice across multiple (more than two) alternatives. Past models of choice behavior predict that the number of alternatives should not affect relative response allocation, but more recent research has found violations of this principle. Five pigeons were(More)
In a concurrent-chains procedure, pigeons chose between reinforcers varying in delay and amount. Reinforcer amount was determined by duration of access to grain, and delay was determined by fixed-interval schedules in the terminal links. Preference was measured by the ratio of responses in initial links. Dependent scheduling of variable-interval schedules(More)
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