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Although individual variation is a key requirement for natural selection, little is known about the magnitude and patterns of individual variation in endocrine systems or the functional significance of that variation. Here we describe (1) the extent and repeatability of inter-individual variation in adrenocortical responses and (2) its relationship to(More)
Numerous studies indicate interspecies variation in the ontogeny of the adrenocortical response in birds; however, little is known about the extent of interindividual variation in avian young. Toward this end, we examined the ontogeny and interindividual variation in the adrenocortical response in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) nestlings. We measured(More)
BACKGROUND The vaginal microbial community plays a vital role in maintaining women's health. Understanding the precise bacterial composition is challenging because of the diverse and difficult-to-culture nature of many bacterial constituents, necessitating culture-independent methodology. During a natural menstrual cycle, physiological changes could have an(More)
The vaginal microbiota is important in women's reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy,(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the vaginal microbiota of women following preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and determine if microbiome composition predicts latency duration and perinatal outcomes. DESIGN A prospective cohort study. SETTING Canada. POPULATION Women with PPROM between 24+0 and 33+6 weeks gestational age (GA). METHODS(More)
INTRODUCTION Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can effectively prevent vertical transmission of HIV but there is potential risk of adverse maternal, foetal or infant effects. Specifically, the effect of cART use during pregnancy on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV-positive (HIV+) women is unclear. We sought to characterize subclinical(More)
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