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Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of(More)
To determine whether data quality is meaningfully reduced by high electrode impedance, EEG was recorded simultaneously from low- and high-impedance electrode sites during an oddball task. Low-frequency noise was found to be increased at high-impedance sites relative to low-impedance sites, especially when the recording environment was warm and humid. The(More)
Electromagnetic data collected using electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are of central importance for psychophysiological research. The scope of concepts, methods, and instruments used by EEG/MEG researchers has dramatically increased and is expected to further increase in the future. Building on existing guideline publications,(More)
The associative learning effects called blocking and highlighting have previously been explained by covert learned attention, but evidence for learned attention has been indirect, via models of response choice. The present research reports results from eye tracking consistent with the attentional hypothesis: Gaze duration is diminished for blocked cues and(More)
CONTEXT Working memory deficits are considered a core feature of schizophrenia. Several recent integrative articles have offered mechanistic computational and neurobiological models of the origins of this cognitive deficit. OBJECTIVE To test predictions of these models using a new experimental paradigm from the basic science literature that makes it(More)
Reaction times (RTs) are substantially prolonged in schizophrenia patients, but the latency of the P3 component is not. This suggests that the RT slowing arises from impairments in a late stage of processing. To test this hypothesis, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects were tested in a visual oddball paradigm that was modified to allow(More)
The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time (RT) measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and(More)
Task set maintenance and switching deficits are robust in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how these constructs are related to one another. The development of an improved understanding of set switching and maintenance deficits in schizophrenia requires that these constructs be explicated in terms of elementary cognitive processes rather than(More)
People with schizophrenia (PSZ) demonstrate reliable reductions in working memory (WM) capacity (i.e., the number of objects that can be held in memory). The present study asked whether WM impairments in PSZ can be explained by the same neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in WM capacity among healthy individuals. Specifically, we examined(More)
Threatening stimuli have been shown to preferentially capture attention using a range of tasks and measures. However, attentional bias to threat has not typically been found in unselected individuals using behavioral measures in the dot-probe task, one of the most common ways of examining attention to threat. The present study leveraged event-related(More)