Emily S. Kappenman

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The associative learning effects called blocking and highlighting have previously been explained by covert learned attention, but evidence for learned attention has been indirect, via models of response choice. The present research reports results from eye tracking consistent with the attentional hypothesis: Gaze duration is diminished for blocked cues and(More)
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of(More)
Electromagnetic data collected using electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are of central importance for psychophysiological research. The scope of concepts, methods, and instruments used by EEG/MEG researchers has dramatically increased and is expected to further increase in the future. Building on existing guideline publications,(More)
To determine whether data quality is meaningfully reduced by high electrode impedance, EEG was recorded simultaneously from low- and high-impedance electrode sites during an oddball task. Low-frequency noise was found to be increased at high-impedance sites relative to low-impedance sites, especially when the recording environment was warm and humid. The(More)
CONTEXT Working memory deficits are considered a core feature of schizophrenia. Several recent integrative articles have offered mechanistic computational and neurobiological models of the origins of this cognitive deficit. OBJECTIVE To test predictions of these models using a new experimental paradigm from the basic science literature that makes it(More)
BACKGROUND Prior demonstrations of impaired attentional control in schizophrenia focused on conditions in which top-down control is needed to overcome prepotent response tendencies. Attentional control over stimulus processing has received little investigation. Here, we test whether attentional control is impaired during working memory encoding when salient(More)
Task set maintenance and switching deficits are robust in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how these constructs are related to one another. The development of an improved understanding of set switching and maintenance deficits in schizophrenia requires that these constructs be explicated in terms of elementary cognitive processes rather than(More)
Reaction times (RTs) are substantially prolonged in schizophrenia patients, but the latency of the P3 component is not. This suggests that the RT slowing arises from impairments in a late stage of processing. To test this hypothesis, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects were tested in a visual oddball paradigm that was modified to allow(More)
Contrary to early conceptualizations of emotional experience in schizophrenia (SZ), recent research indicates that patients do not self-report less in-the-moment pleasure than controls (CN). Rather, patients report experiencing elevated levels of negative emotionality in response to a range of evocative stimuli. In this study, we examined the possibility(More)
People with schizophrenia (PSZ) exhibit signs of reduced working memory (WM) capacity. However, this may reflect an impairment in managing its content, e.g. preventing irrelevant information from taking up available storage space, rather than a true capacity reduction. We tested the ability to eliminate and update WM content in 38 PSZ and 30 healthy control(More)