Emily M. Ryan

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It has become apparent that adenosine triphosphate binds to the active site of myosin in a way which is not optimal for hydrolytic cleavage of the terminal phosphate bond. Depending on conditions, a wide variety of reagents, including 2,4-dinitrophenol, can improve the catalysis of this reaction by altering the interaction between enzyme and substrate.(More)
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are employed in first line therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. They generally lack a 3'-hydroxyl group, and thus when incorporated into the nascent DNA they prevent further elongation. In this report we show that 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA), a(More)
4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a nucleoside analog that, unlike approved anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, has a 3'-OH and exhibits remarkable potency against wild-type and drug-resistant HIVs. EFdA triphosphate (EFdA-TP) is unique among nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(More)
Rilpivirine (RPV) is a second generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) that efficiently inhibits HIV-1 resistant to first generation NNRTIs. Virological failure during therapy with RPV and emtricitabine is associated with the appearance of E138K and M184I mutations in RT. Here we investigate the biochemical mechanism of RT(More)
The K65R substitution in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) is the major resistance mutation selected in patients treated with first-line antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA), is the most potent nucleoside analog RT inhibitor (NRTI) that unlike all approved NRTIs(More)
We report key mechanistic differences between the reverse transcriptases (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a gammaretrovirus that can infect human cells. Steady and pre-steady state kinetics demonstrated that XMRV RT is significantly less efficient in DNA synthesis and in(More)
In this paper we present a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) pore-scale multicomponent reactive transport model with competitive adsorption. SPH is a Lagrangian, particle based modeling method which uses the particles as interpolation points to discretize and solve flow and transport equations. The theory and details of the SPH pore-scale model are(More)