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BACKGROUND Current methods for detecting malaria parasites are invasive and associated with poor compliance when repeated sampling is required. New methods to detect and quantify parasites in a less-invasive manner would greatly enhance the potential for longitudinal surveillance in clinical trials. METHODS Saliva, urine, and blood samples from 386(More)
INTRODUCTION In the era of malaria elimination and eradication, drug-based and vaccine-based approaches to reduce malaria transmission are receiving greater attention. Such interventions require assays that reliably measure the transmission of Plasmodium from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes. METHODS WE COMPARED TWO COMMONLY USED MOSQUITO FEEDING ASSAY(More)
UNLABELLED Several malarial antigens are in development as potential vaccine candidates as part of a concerted effort to control the disease, which kills more than one million people per year. Although some antigens have demonstrated an impact against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, many researchers hypothesize that a combination of antigens(More)
A workshop on viral vectors for malaria vaccine development, organized by the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, was held in Bethesda, MD on October 20, 2005. Recent advancements in viral-vectored malaria vaccine development and emerging vector technologies were presented and discussed. Classic viral vectors such as poxvirus, adenovirus and alphavirus vectors(More)
Malaria cases attributed to Plasmodium falciparum account for approximately 600,000 deaths yearly, mainly in African children. The gold standard method to diagnose malaria requires the visualization of the parasite in blood. The role of non-invasive diagnostic methods to diagnose malaria remains unclear. A protocol was optimized to deplete highly abundant(More)
An effective malaria transmission-blocking vaccine may play an important role in malaria elimination efforts, and a robust biological assay is essential for its development. The standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA) for Plasmodium falciparum infection of mosquitoes is considered a “gold standard” assay to measure transmission-blocking activity of test(More)
There is still a need for sensitive and reproducible immunoassays for quantitative detection of malarial antigens in preclinical and clinical phases of vaccine development and in epidemiology and surveillance studies, particularly in the vector host. Here we report the results of sensitivity and reproducibility studies for a research-grade, quantitative(More)
The cultured myocardial cell provides a defined model for examining factors which are responsible for maintaining cellular viability and sarcolemmal integrity. Our data indicates that the spontaneous loss of myocyte membrane integrity is a calcium-dependent process and thus provides a method for examining the mechanism through which calcium exerts this(More)
The size of the area of exposure on the skin during excretory urography was determined by either technician-controlled fluoroscopy or conventional assessment in 2 comparable groups of patients. The mean skin exposure to radiation per patient was the same in each group. The time required for a urogram was 10% less when fluoroscopy was employed. Since(More)
The infectivity of Plasmodium gametocytes is typically determined by microscopically examining the midguts of mosquitoes that have taken a blood meal containing potentially infectious parasites. Such assessments are required for the development and evaluation of transmission-reducing interventions (TRI), but are limited by subjectivity, technical complexity(More)