Learn More
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of heritable mental retardation and the leading identified cause of autism. FXS is caused by transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene that encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), but the pathogenesis of the disease is unknown. According to one proposal, many psychiatric and neurological(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex and fragile X syndrome are genetic diseases characterized by intellectual disability and autism. Because both syndromes are caused by mutations in genes that regulate protein synthesis in neurons, it has been hypothesized that excessive protein synthesis is one core pathophysiological mechanism of intellectual disability and(More)
Myosin VI (Myo6) is an actin-based motor protein implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in nonneuronal cells, though little is known about its function in the nervous system. Here, we find that Myo6 is highly expressed throughout the brain, localized to synapses, and enriched at the postsynaptic density. Myo6-deficient (Snell's waltzer; sv/sv)(More)
Among the hallmark phenotypes reported in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are deficits in attentional function, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, a set of cognitive skills thought to be associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, despite substantial clinical research into these core deficits, the PFC has received(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by loss of the FMR1 gene product FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein), a repressor of mRNA translation. According to the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) theory of FXS, excessive protein synthesis downstream of mGluR5 activation causes the synaptic pathophysiology that underlies multiple aspects of FXS. Here,(More)
Fragile X is a synapsopathy--a disorder of synaptic function and plasticity. Recent studies using mouse models of the disease suggest that the critical defect is altered regulation of synaptic protein synthesis. Various strategies to restore balanced synaptic protein synthesis have been remarkably successful in correcting widely varied mutant phenotypes in(More)
BACKGROUND Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common inherited form of intellectual disability caused by loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation protein. Recent animal studies suggest that upregulated downstream signaling by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) might be an important mechanism for cognitive and behavioral abnormalities(More)
Myosin 1E is one of two "long-tailed" human Class I myosins that contain an SH3 domain within the tail region. SH3 domains of yeast and amoeboid myosins I interact with activators of the Arp2/3 complex, an important regulator of actin polymerization. No binding partners for the SH3 domains of myosins I have been identified in higher eukaryotes. In the(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), including mGluR5, play a central role in regulating the strength and plasticity of synaptic connections in the brain. However, the signaling pathways that connect mGluRs to their downstream effectors are not yet fully understood. Here, we report that stimulation of mGluR5 in hippocampal cultures and slices results(More)