Emily Jane Gallagher

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Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cancer in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity, related in part to hyperinsulinemia, secondary to insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemia leads to increased expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I expression. In fact, increased insulin, IGF-I and IGF-II levels are associated with(More)
In today's society with the escalating levels of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome is receiving considerable attention and is the subject of much controversy. Greater insight into the mechanism(s) behind the syndrome may improve our understanding of how to prevent and best manage this complex condition.
Hemoglobin HbA(1c) (A(1c)) has been used clinically since the 1980s as a test of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated that tight glycemic control, quantified by lower blood glucose and A(1c) levels, reduced the risk of the development of complications from diabetes. Subsequently,(More)
Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing and dying from cancer. This increased risk may be due to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance or other factors. Metformin has recently gained much attention as it appears to reduce cancer incidence and improve prognosis of patients with diabetes. In vitro data and animal studies(More)
Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome are associated with multiple factors that may cause an increased risk for cancer and cancer-related mortality. Factors involved include hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and IGFs. Insulin resistance is also associated with alterations in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adipokines (leptin,(More)
In recent years, the influence of the IGF system and insulin on cancer growth has been widely studied. Observational human studies have reported increased cancer mortality in those with obesity and type 2 diabetes, which may be attributable to hyperinsulinemia, elevated IGF-I, or potentially both factors. Conversely, those with low insulin, IGF-I and IGF-II(More)
I t is well recognized that the world is witnessing an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Numerous studies have shown that both obesity and T2D are associated with an increased risk for developing many of the common epithelial cancers as well as an increased risk of cancer-related mortality. There are many factors that are commonly associated(More)
Cellular stress resistance is generally associated with longevity, but the mechanisms underlying this phenotype are not clear. In invertebrate models there is a clear role for heat shock proteins (Hsps) and organelle-specific unfolded protein responses (UPR) in longevity. However, this has not been demonstrated in vertebrates. Some Hsp amino acid sequences(More)
The metabolic syndrome affects more than a third of the US population, predisposing to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The 2009 consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association, World Heart Federation, International Atherosclerosis Society, International Association for the Study of(More)
Both obesity and Type 2 diabetes are independently associated with an increased risk of developing cancer and an increased mortality. The etiology is yet to be determined but insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia maybe important factors. Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and inflammatory cytokines in addition to the insulin-like growth factors are also(More)