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Rubisco is the predominant enzymatic mechanism in the biosphere by which autotrophic bacteria, algae, and terrestrial plants fix CO(2) into organic biomass via the Calvin-Benson-Basham reductive pentose phosphate pathway. Rubisco is not a perfect catalyst, suffering from low turnover rates, a low affinity for its CO(2) substrate, and a competitive(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is the causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and associated acute neurological disease. At present, little is known about the genetic determinants of HEV71 neurovirulence. Studies of related enteroviruses have indicated that the untranslated regions (UTRs), which control virus-directed translation and replication,(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of the species Human enterovirus A within the family Picornaviridae and is a major causative agent of epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with severe neurological disease. Three EV71 genogroups, designated A, B and C, have been identified, with 75-84 % nucleotide sequence similarity between them. Two(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) has emerged as a major cause of epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with severe neurological sequelae in the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, a passive protection mouse model was used to evaluate the protective efficacy of formalin-inactivated HEV71 vaccines derived from a Chinese C4 genotype strain. Pregnant(More)
The replication of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in cell culture is inhibited by concentrations of guanidine that do not have an observable adverse effect on host cell metabolism. Although the HEV71 non-structural protein 2C is known to play an important role in viral RNA replication, its precise biochemical activities and structure have not been fully(More)
It has been shown in animal models that ribavirin-resistant poliovirus with a G64S mutation in its 3D polymerase has high replication fidelity coupled with attenuated virulence. Here, we describe the effects of mutagenesis in the human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) 3D polymerase on ribavirin resistance and replication fidelity. Seven substitutions were introduced(More)
Shigella flexneri, which causes shigellosis in humans, evolved from Escherichia coli. The sequencing of Shigella genomes has revealed that a large number of insertion sequence (IS) elements (over 200 elements) reside in the genome. Although the presence of these elements has been noted previously and summarized, more detailed analyses are required to(More)
Under-nutrition in neonates can cause immediate mortality, impaired cognitive development and early onset adult disease. Body fat percentage measured using air-displacement-plethysmography has been found to better indicate under-nutrition than conventional birth weight percentiles. However, air-displacement-plethysmography equipment is expensive and(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) has emerged as a major cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia, with increased epidemic activity observed since 1997. This is reflected in a large increase in scientific publications relating directly to HEV71. New research is elucidating details of the viral life cycle, confirming similarities between HEV71 and other(More)
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