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During bladder development, primitive mesenchyme differentiates into smooth muscle (SM) under the influence of urothelium. The gene(s) responsible for this process have not been elucidated. We propose that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is critical in bladder SM formation. Herein, we examine the role of the Shh-signaling pathway during SM(More)
PURPOSE An unexplained increase in the incidence of hypospadias has been reported, and yet to our knowledge the molecular events and their regulation leading to hypospadias remain unknown, although environmental compounds capable of endocrine activity are suspected. We screened on a global scale abnormalities in gene expression in human hypospadiac tissue(More)
PURPOSE We examined the ontogenic and sex specific expression of estrogen receptor-alpha and beta in mouse genital tubercles and assessed the effects of in utero estrogen exposure on these parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS Expression of the 2 genes was detected in mouse genital tubercles from fetuses collected on gestational days 12, 14, 16 and 18, and(More)
The molecular events that lead to isolated hypospadias remain largely unknown, and the etiology of this common congenital anomaly seems to be multifactorial. We have explored the response of several candidate genes to environmental agents that cause hypospadias in a mouse model. Here, we provide an overview of current findings in relation to candidate genes(More)
OBJECTIVES The phytoestrogen (plant estrogen) genistein, present in soy products, is of interest because in utero exposure to genistein can cause hypospadias in our mouse model and maternal consumption of soy is prevalent in human populations. Another compound of interest is the fungicide vinclozolin, which also causes hypospadias in the mouse and rat and(More)
Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the genitalia characterized by abnormalities of the urethra and foreskin, with the urethral meatus located in an abnormal position anywhere from the distal ventral penile shaft to the perineum. Because the incidence of hypospadias is approximately 1/200-1/300 live male births, it is one of the most common congenital(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Synthetic estrogens induce hypospadias, an anomaly of genital tubercle/urethral development. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which is estrogen-responsive in vitro, is upregulated in hypospadiac human tissue. We used a mouse model of steroid-dependent genital tubercle development to elucidate the ontogeny of ATF3 expression and the(More)
PURPOSE The ontogeny of androgen receptor expression in male and female mouse genital tubercles, and the effects of in utero ethinyl estradiol exposure on androgen receptor mRNA expression in the hypospadias model were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS Androgen receptor mRNA expression was measured in mouse genital tubercles from fetuses and pups collected(More)
Hypospadias is a penile developmental abnormality that may partly result from in utero exposure to estrogenic compounds. Expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is elevated in human foreskin tissue from hypospadic patients, and in utero exposure to ethinyl estradiol (17-EE) causes ATF3 upregulation in a hypospadias mouse model. We(More)
Coal tar based pavement sealers are applied regularly to parking lots and contain significant levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recently a connection between elevated levels of PAHs in streams and storm water runoff from parking lots has been identified. We tested the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement sealers could alter the survival,(More)