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Radiotherapy research lacks a flexible computational research environment for Monte Carlo (MC) and patient-specific treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible software package on low-cost hardware with the aim of integrating new patient-specific treatment planning with MC dose calculations suitable for large-scale prospective(More)
Cleavage of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is catalyzed by an endopeptidase associated with a partially purified membrane preparation from bovine kidney cortex. This enzyme was found to have an acid pH optimum and to be easily extracted from the membranes by a single freeze-thaw cycle. The cleavage is remarkable in that it appears to be restricted to a small(More)
Migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells are key to a number of physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing and the narrowing of the vessel wall. Previous work has shown links between inflammatory stimuli and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation,(More)
Motion of thoracic tumors with respiration presents a challenge for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy treatment. Validation of techniques aimed at measuring and minimizing the effects of respiratory motion requires a realistic deformable phantom for use as a gold standard. The purpose of this study was to develop and study the(More)
The performance of the ANIMAL (Automated Nonlinear Image Matching and Anatomical Labeling) nonlinear registration algorithm for registration of thoracic 4D CT images was investigated. The algorithm was modified to minimize the incidence of deformation vector discontinuities that occur during the registration of lung images. Registrations were performed(More)
A new component module (CM), designated DYNVMLC, was developed to fully model the geometry of the Varian Millennium 120 leaf collimator using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The model includes details such as the leaf driving screw hole, support railing groove and leaf tips. Further modifications also allow sampling of leaf sequence files to simulate the(More)
The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo dose-calculation system (North American Scientific, Cranberry Township, PA) is the first commercially available Monte Carlo dose-calculation code intended specifically for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning and quality assurance. In order to assess the impact of Monte Carlo based dose calculations for IMRT(More)
This article reports on a 4D-treatment planning workshop (4DTPW), held on 7-8 December 2009 at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The participants were all members of institutions actively involved in particle therapy delivery and research. The purpose of the 4DTPW was to discuss current approaches, challenges, and future research(More)
A method for simulating spot-scanned delivery to a moving tumour was developed which uses patient-specific image and plan data. The magnitude of interplay effects was investigated for two patient cases under different fractionation and respiratory motion variation scenarios. The use of volumetric rescanning for motion mitigation was also investigated. For(More)
In this work we dosimetrically evaluated the clinical implementation of a commercial Monte Carlo treatment planning software (PEREGRINE, North American Scientific, Cranberry Township, PA) intended for quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment plans. Dose profiles calculated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms using this(More)