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Radiotherapy research lacks a flexible computational research environment for Monte Carlo (MC) and patient-specific treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible software package on low-cost hardware with the aim of integrating new patient-specific treatment planning with MC dose calculations suitable for large-scale prospective(More)
A new component module (CM), designated DYNVMLC, was developed to fully model the geometry of the Varian Millennium 120 leaf collimator using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The model includes details such as the leaf driving screw hole, support railing groove and leaf tips. Further modifications also allow sampling of leaf sequence files to simulate the(More)
Motion of thoracic tumors with respiration presents a challenge for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy treatment. Validation of techniques aimed at measuring and minimizing the effects of respiratory motion requires a realistic deformable phantom for use as a gold standard. The purpose of this study was to develop and study the(More)
Migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells are key to a number of physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing and the narrowing of the vessel wall. Previous work has shown links between inflammatory stimuli and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation,(More)
Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species, Drosophila simulans, differ in expression of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Adult melanogaster flies that are homozygous for the Slow allozyme have approximately twice the level of ADH activity and crossreacting material as simulans adults. There is no corresponding difference in ADH mRNA, however,(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in the immune host by preferentially colonizing the isotype-switched (IgD(-)CD27(+)) memory B-cell pool. In one scenario, this is achieved through virus infection of naive (IgD(+)CD27(-)) B cells and their differentiation into memory via germinal center (GC) transit; in another, EBV avoids GC transit and infects memory B(More)
The performance of the ANIMAL (Automated Nonlinear Image Matching and Anatomical Labeling) nonlinear registration algorithm for registration of thoracic 4D CT images was investigated. The algorithm was modified to minimize the incidence of deformation vector discontinuities that occur during the registration of lung images. Registrations were performed(More)
Twelve inbred lines derived from an M' strain of Drosophila melanogaster were used to study the repression of P-element-mediated hybrid dysgenesis. Initial assessments indicated that the lines differed in the ability to repress gonadal dysgenesis, and that this ability was highly correlated with the ability to repress snw hypermutability. Later assessments(More)
This article reports on a 4D-treatment planning workshop (4DTPW), held on 7-8 December 2009 at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The participants were all members of institutions actively involved in particle therapy delivery and research. The purpose of the 4DTPW was to discuss current approaches, challenges, and future research(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a lymphomagenic human herpesvirus, colonises the host through polyclonal B cell-growth-transforming infections yet establishes persistence only in IgD⁺ CD27⁺ non-switched memory (NSM) and IgD⁻ CD27⁺ switched memory (SM) B cells, not in IgD⁺ CD27⁻ naïve (N) cells. How this selectivity is achieved remains poorly understood. Here we(More)