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This study examines whether 4-8-Hz theta oscillations can be seen in the human hippocampus, and whether these oscillations increase during virtual movement and searching, as they do in rodents. Recordings from both hippocampal and neocortical depth electrodes were analyzed while six epileptic patients played a virtual taxi-driver game. During the game, the(More)
Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate from broccoli that induces phase 2 detoxification enzymes. We recently reported that SFN acts as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in human colon cancer cells in vitro, and the present study sought to extend these findings in vivo. In mice treated with a single oral dose of 10 µmol SFN, there was significant(More)
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate first isolated from broccoli, exhibits chemopreventive properties in prostate cancer cells through mechanisms that are poorly understood. We recently reported on a novel mechanism of chemoprotection by SFN in human colon cancer cells, namely the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Here, we show that addition of 15(More)
Mouse models have markedly improved our understanding of cancer development and tumor biology. However, these models have shown limited efficacy as tractable systems for unbiased genetic experimentation. Here, we report the adaptation of loss-of-function screening to mouse models of cancer. Specifically, we have been able to introduce a library of shRNAs(More)
Genomic instability is a common feature of cancer etiology. This provides an avenue for therapeutic intervention, since cancer cells are more susceptible than normal cells to DNA damaging agents. However, there is growing evidence that the epigenetic mechanisms that impact DNA methylation and histone status also contribute to genomic instability. The DNA(More)
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, induces potent anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells. One mechanism that may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of SFN is the modulation of epigenetic marks, such as inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. However, the effects of SFN on other common(More)
There is growing interest in the various mechanisms that regulate chromatin remodeling, including modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities. Competitive HDAC inhibitors disrupt the cell cycle and/or induce apoptosis via de-repression of genes such as P21 and BAX, and cancer cells appear to be more sensitive than non-transformed cells to(More)
BACKGROUND Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are short non-coding RNAs that affect the expression of genes involved in normal physiology, but that also become dysregulated in cancer development. In the latter context, studies to date have focused on high-abundance miRNAs and their targets. We hypothesized that among the pool of low-abundance miRNAs are some with the(More)
Mutations to the copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene are responsible for 2-3% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. These mutations result in the protein having a reduced affinity for zinc. SOD becomes toxic to motor neurons when zinc is missing from its active site. Recently, high dosages of zinc (75 and 375 mg/kg/day) have been(More)