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BACKGROUND The under-recognition of hypomanic symptoms by both clinicians and patients is a major clinical problem which contributes to misdiagnosis and diagnostic delay in patients with bipolar disorder. The recent development of validated screening instruments for hypomania, such as the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32), may help to improve the detection of(More)
BACKGROUND Bipolar disorder is complex and can be difficult to diagnose. It is often misdiagnosed as recurrent major depressive disorder. AIMS We had three main aims. To estimate the proportion of primary care patients with a working diagnosis of unipolar depression who satisfy DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. To test two screening instruments for(More)
Simultaneous infection by multiple parasite species (viruses, bacteria, helminths, protozoa or fungi) is commonplace. Most reports show co-infected humans to have worse health than those with single infections. However, we have little understanding of how co-infecting parasites interact within human hosts. We used data from over 300 published studies to(More)
When and how populations are regulated by bottom up vs. top down processes, and how those processes are affected by co-occurring species, are poorly characterised across much of ecology. We are especially interested in the community ecology of parasites that must share a host. Here, we quantify how resources and immunity affect parasite propagation in(More)
Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) is known to be inactivated by enzymes present in the rat hypothalamus. To make a further study of the enzymes' action on the tripeptide, synthetic TRH was incubated with two hypothalamic subcellular fractions. By using a direct radioimmunoassay for TRH, the tripeptide was shown to be rapidly degraded by both supernatant(More)
A mechanical apparatus was used to measure hind limb resistance to flexion in rats injected with opioid peptides in the brain periaqueductal grey region (PAG). (D-Ala2, D-Leu5) enkephalin (delta agonist) and dynorphin1-8 and ethylketocyclazocine (kappa agonists) had no effects on hind limb tone. The mu agonist (D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5) enkephalin induced(More)
OBJECTIVE Many fundamental patterns of coinfection (multi-species infections) are undescribed, including the relative frequency of coinfection by various pathogens, differences between single-species infections and coinfection, and the burden of coinfection on human health. We aimed to address the paucity of general knowledge on coinfection by(More)
OBJECTIVES   Psychoeducational approaches are promising interventions for the long-term management of bipolar disorder. In consultation with professionals, patients, and their families we have developed a novel web-based psychoeducational intervention for bipolar disorder called Beating Bipolar. We undertook a preliminary exploratory randomized trial to(More)