Emily C E Dunford

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Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays an important role in regulating carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. PDH is deactivated by a set of PDH kinases (PDK1, PDK2, PDK3, PDK4), with PDK2 and PDK4 being the most predominant isoforms in skeletal muscle. Although PDK2 is the most abundant isoform, few studies have examined its physiological role. The role of(More)
The oxidation of carbohydrates in mammals is regulated by the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, which is covalently regulated by four PDH kinases (PDK1-4) and two PDH phosphatases (PDP1-2) unique to the PDH complex. To investigate the role that PDK4 plays in regulating PDH activation (PDHa) during muscle contraction, mouse extensor digitorum muscle was(More)
The blockade of glucocorticoid (GC) action through antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor II (GRII) has been used to minimize the undesirable effects of chronically elevated GC levels. Mifepristone (RU486) is known to competitively block GRII action, but not exclusively, as it antagonizes the progesterone receptor. A number of new selective GRII(More)
Diabetes is rapidly induced in young male Sprague-Dawley rats following treatment with exogenous corticosterone (CORT) and a high-fat diet (HFD). Regular exercise alleviates insulin insensitivity and improves pancreatic β-cell function in insulin-resistant/diabetic rodents, but its effect in an animal model of elevated glucocorticoids is unknown. We(More)
High-dose glucocorticoids (GC) induce skeletal muscle atrophy, insulin resistance, and reduced muscle capillarization. Identification of treatments to prevent or reverse capillary rarefaction and metabolic deterioration caused by prolonged elevations in GCs would be therapeutically beneficial. Chronic administration of prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist,(More)
Severe caloric restriction (CR), in a setting of regular physical exercise, may be a stress that sets the stage for adiposity rebound and insulin resistance when the food restriction and exercise stop. In this study, we examined the effect of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid (GC) receptor antagonist, on limiting adipose tissue mass gain and preserving whole(More)
Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) causes impairments within the skeletal muscle microvasculature. Both regular exercise and prazosin have been shown to improve skeletal muscle capillarization and metabolism in healthy rats through distinct angiogenic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent and additive effects of voluntary exercise(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones, naturally produced by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, that mediate the immune and metabolic systems. Synthetic GCs are used to treat a number of inflammatory conditions and diseases including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Generally, chronic or high dose GC administration is(More)
Sustained elevations in circulating glucocorticoids elicit reductions in skeletal muscle microvascular content, but little is known of the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress contributes to this phenomenon. In rats that were implanted with corticosterone (CORT) or control pellets, CORT caused a significant(More)
Altered permeability of the endothelial barrier in a variety of tissues has implications both in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Glucocorticoids are potent mediators of endothelial permeability, and this forms the basis for their heavily prescribed use as medications to treat ocular disease. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on endothelial barriers(More)