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Breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Rates vary about five-fold around the world, but they are increasing in regions that until recently had low rates of the disease. Many of the established risk factors are linked to oestrogens. Risk is increased by early menarche, late menopause, and obesity in postmenopausal women, and(More)
CONTEXT Over the past few decades hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been used increasingly by post-menopausal women in western countries. The need for objective data on long-term effects prompted the setting up of randomised trials to compare cancer and cardiovascular disease endpoints in HRT users and non-users. With the early termination of part of(More)
Energy balance can affect the risk for hormone-related cancers by altering sex hormone levels. Energy intake and expenditure are difficult to measure in epidemiological studies, but a chronic excess of intake relative to expenditure leads to a high BMI, which can be accurately measured. In premenopausal women obesity has little effect on the serum(More)
In common with virtually all industrialized countries and many less developed nations, Australia is facing rapid population ageing. Historical patterns of fertility and migration, along with changes in life expectancy, mean that the over 65 age group is likely to increase by around 50% in the next 15–20 years. The further increase in the proportion of(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable evidence about the effect of female genital mutilation (FGM) on obstetric outcome is scarce. This study examines the effect of different types of FGM on obstetric outcome. METHODS 28 393 women attending for singleton delivery between November, 2001, and March, 2003, at 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria,(More)
Hip fracture risk is known to increase with physical inactivity and decrease with obesity, but there is little information on their combined effects. We report on the separate and combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on hospital admissions for hip fracture among postmenopausal women in a large prospective UK study. Baseline(More)
The use of vitamin D testing has grown rapidly in the recent times as a result of increased interest in the role of vitamin D in health. Although the generally accepted measure of vitamin D status is circulating 25(OH)D concentration, there is little consensus on which assay method should be used. Commonly used assays include competitive protein-binding(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if the recent rapid fall in use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in Australia has been followed by a reduction in breast cancer incidence among women aged 50 years or older, but not among younger women. DESIGN AND SETTING Analysis of trends in annual prescribing of HRT, using Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data, and in annual(More)
BACKGROUND 7% of women in the western world develop palpable breast cysts. Studies of the relation between cysts and breast cancer have conflicting results. There are two clearly defined types of cyst. We investigated whether one cyst type is associated with a higher rate of breast-cancer development than the other. METHODS We studied 1374 women with(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine how lifestyle, hormonal, and other factors influence the sensitivity and specificity of mammography. METHODS Women recruited into the Million Women Study completed a questionnaire about various personal factors before routine mammographic screening. A sample of 122,355 women aged 50-64 years were followed for outcome of screening and(More)