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Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included(More)
Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if the recent rapid fall in use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in Australia has been followed by a reduction in breast cancer incidence among women aged 50 years or older, but not among younger women. DESIGN AND SETTING Analysis of trends in annual prescribing of HRT, using Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data, and in annual(More)
Breast cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Rates vary about five-fold around the world, but they are increasing in regions that until recently had low rates of the disease. Many of the established risk factors are linked to oestrogens. Risk is increased by early menarche, late menopause, and obesity in postmenopausal women, and(More)
CONTEXT Over the past few decades hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been used increasingly by post-menopausal women in western countries. The need for objective data on long-term effects prompted the setting up of randomised trials to compare cancer and cardiovascular disease endpoints in HRT users and non-users. With the early termination of part of(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable evidence about the effect of female genital mutilation (FGM) on obstetric outcome is scarce. This study examines the effect of different types of FGM on obstetric outcome. METHODS 28 393 women attending for singleton delivery between November, 2001, and March, 2003, at 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria,(More)
Energy balance can affect the risk for hormone-related cancers by altering sex hormone levels. Energy intake and expenditure are difficult to measure in epidemiological studies, but a chronic excess of intake relative to expenditure leads to a high BMI, which can be accurately measured. In premenopausal women obesity has little effect on the serum(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the effect of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of hip and knee replacement in middle-aged women. METHODS In a prospective cohort study 490 532 women aged 50-69 yrs who were recruited in the UK in 1996-2001 were followed over 2.9 yrs for incident primary hip and knee replacements. RESULTS Height, weight and BMI(More)
Hip fracture risk is known to increase with physical inactivity and decrease with obesity, but there is little information on their combined effects. We report on the separate and combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on hospital admissions for hip fracture among postmenopausal women in a large prospective UK study. Baseline(More)
CONTEXT Evidence is limited on the effects of different patterns of use of postmenopausal hormone therapy on fracture incidence and particularly on the effects of ceasing use. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of different patterns of hormone therapy use on fracture incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 138,737(More)