Emily B. Einstein

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Most neurons possess a single, nonmotile cilium that projects out from the cell surface. These microtubule-based organelles are important in brain development and neurogenesis; however, their function in mature neurons is unknown. Cilia express a complement of proteins distinct from other neuronal compartments, one of which is the somatostatin receptor(More)
Like a number of neuropeptides, galanin can alter neural activity in brain areas that are important for both stress-related behaviors and responses to drugs of abuse. Accordingly, drugs that target galanin receptors can alter behavioral responses to drugs of abuse and can modulate stress-related behaviors. Stress and drug-related behaviors are interrelated:(More)
Previous studies have suggested that treatment with antagonists or partial agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the β2-subunit (β2 nAChRs) results in antidepressant-like effects. In this study, we tested three novel compounds with different affinity and functional efficacy at α4β2 nAChRs, which were synthesized as part of nAChR discovery(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockers potentiate the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in some treatment-resistant patients; however, it is not known whether these effects are independent, or whether the two neurotransmitter systems act synergistically. We first determined that the SSRI fluoxetine and the nicotinic(More)
Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [³H]-epibatidine binding(More)
The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to modulate opiate dependence and withdrawal. These effects could be mediated via activation of one or more of the three distinct G protein-coupled receptors, namely galanin receptors 1 (GalR1), 2 (GalR2), and 3 (GalR3). In this study, we used several transgenic mouse lines to further define the mechanisms underlying(More)
The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to alter the rewarding properties of morphine. To identify potential cellular mechanisms that might be involved in the ability of galanin to modulate opiate reward, we measured excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), using both field and whole-cell recordings from striatal brain slices extracted from wild-type(More)
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