Emily A Smith

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Concentrations of phenolic compounds in human gut contents were more than fourfold higher in the distal colon (6.2 mmol kg-1) compared to the proximal bowel (1.4 mmol kg-1). Tryptophan metabolites were never found in more than trace amounts in large intestinal contents and phenol substituted fatty acids were the major products of aromatic amino acid(More)
The abilities of slurries of human faecal bacteria to ferment 20 different amino acids were investigated in batch culture incubations. Ammonia, short chain fatty acids, and in some cases, amines, were the principal products of dissimilatory metabolism. The types of SCFA produced were dependent on the chemical compositions of the test substrates. Thus,(More)
Extensive epidemiological and genetic studies of the cause of oral clefts have demonstrated strong familial aggregation but have failed to yield definitive evidence of any single genetic mechanism. We used the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to investigate the relationship between oral clefts and markers associated with five candidate genes by(More)
Carbohydrate arrays fabricated on gold films were used to study carbohydrate-protein interactions with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. An immobilization scheme consisting of the formation of a surface disulfide bond was used to attach thiol-modified carbohydrates onto gold films and to fabricate carbohydrate arrays. The carbohydrate attachment(More)
Biomass representing different classes of bioenergy feedstocks, including woody and herbaceous species, was measured with 1064 nm Raman spectroscopy. Pine, oak, poplar, kenaf, miscanthus, pampas grass, switchgrass, alfalfa, orchard grass, and red clover were included in this study. Spectral differences have been identified with an emphasis on lignin(More)
A naphthyridine dimer that binds specifically to G-G mismatches has been used to induce hairpin formation in oligonucleotides immobilized onto chemically modified gold surfaces. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging measurements of DNA microarrays were used to demonstrate that binding of the naphthyridine dimer to G-G mismatches within the stem portion of(More)
The mixed phenylpropanoid polymer lignin is one of the most abundant biopolymers on the planet and is used in the paper, pulp and biorenewable industries. For many downstream applications, the lignin monomeric composition is required, but traditional methods for performing this analysis do not necessarily represent the lignin composition as it existed in(More)
Glyphosate is a widely-used broad-spectrum herbicide with little to no hazard to man or the environment. Glyphosate is highly effective against 90 kinds of emerged grasses, brush and broad-leaf weeds. There is no residual soil activity, it does not leach into non-target areas, and it is non-volatile. It is practically nontoxic to mammals, birds and fish,(More)
The effect of corn stover pretreatment on glucose quantitation in hydrolysate using Raman spectroscopy is evaluated. Dilute sulfuric-acid pretreatment results in a 20 mg mL(-1) glucose limit of detection in hydrolysate. Soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment produces a 4 mg mL(-1) limit of detection. Water, ethanol or hexane extraction of corn stover(More)
Ethnic differences in bone metabolism have been reported and it has been suggested that these may be partly due to prolonged exposure to an elevated plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration or a decreased sensitivity to PTH. We explored ethnic differences in bone and mineral metabolism by 5 days of oral phosphate (P) loading to stimulate PTH(More)