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Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected with CWD. Primary cultures derived from uninfected mule deer(More)
Although transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are incurable, a key therapeutic approach is prevention of conversion of the normal, protease-sensitive form of prion protein (PrP-sen) to the disease-specific protease-resistant form of prion protein (PrP-res). Here degenerate phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (PS-ONs) are introduced as low-nM(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Every year, millions of children undergo anesthesia. Emerging evidence from experimental in-vitro and in-vivo models supports a role for neuropathologic injury and neurobehavioral deficits at older age after early exposure to various anesthetic regimens. Clinical studies have sought to identify a phenotype of developmental anesthesia(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Sedation and anesthesia are often necessary for children at any age, and are frequently provided in ambulatory settings. Concerns have mounted, based on both laboratory studies including various mammalian species and retrospective human clinical studies, that the very drugs that induce sedation and anesthesia may trigger an injury in the(More)
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases. A primary therapeutic target for TSE intervention has been a protease-resistant form of prion protein known as PrP(Sc) or PrP-res. In vitro testing of mouse scrapie-infected cell cultures has identified many PrP-res inhibitors that also have activity in vivo. Here we(More)
Exposure of infant animals, including non-human primates (NHPs), to anaesthetic drugs causes apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes (oligos) and results in long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Moreover, retrospective clinical studies document an association between anaesthesia exposure of human infants and significant increase in NDI.(More)
Chinese imperialism, Japanese occupation, and the sustained involvement of United States in the southern half of the peninsula, have created a strong sense of nationalism in North Korea that has shaped its ideological principle Juché or “selfreliance.” This policy has evolved to benefit the North Korean regime. First, it was a tool used to disengage from(More)
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