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The completeness of tumor removal during surgery is dependent on the surgeon's ability to differentiate tumor from normal tissue using subjective criteria that are not easily quantifiable. A way to objectively assess tumor margins during surgery in patients would be of great value. We have developed a method to visualize tumors during surgery using(More)
Mechanisms of ischemic neuronal and vascular injury remain obscure. Here we test the hypothesis that thrombin, a blood-borne coagulation factor, contributes to neurovascular injury during acute focal ischemia. Stroke was induced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by occluding the middle cerebral artery. Intra-arterial thrombin infusion during ischemia(More)
Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 (ATCC 53968) is able to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulphur. The carbon skeleton of DBT is not metabolized and is conserved as 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), which accumulates in the medium. This phenotype is due to the expression of the plasmid-encoded DBT-desulphurization (dsz) operon, which encodes three(More)
We have devised and tested a new strategy for selectively delivering molecules to tumor cells. Cellular association of polyarginine-based, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is effectively blocked when they are fused to an inhibitory domain made up of negatively charged residues. We call these fusions activatable CPPs (ACPPs) because cleavage of the linker(More)
High-resolution imaging of molecules intrinsically involved in malignancy and metastasis would be of great value for clinical detection and staging of tumors. We now report in vivo visualization of matrix metalloproteinase activities by MRI and fluorescence of dendrimeric nanoparticles coated with activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs), labeled with(More)
Activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs) are novel in vivo targeting agents comprised of a polycationic cell penetrating peptide (CPP) connected via a cleavable linker to a neutralizing polyanion (). Adsorption and uptake into cells are inhibited until the linker is proteolyzed. An ACPP cleavable by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in vitro was the(More)
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been developed as vehicles for payload delivery into cells in culture and in animals. However several biologic features limit their usefulness in living animals. Activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs) are polycationic CPPs whose adsorption and cellular uptake are minimized by a covalently attached polyanionic(More)
Thrombin and other coagulation enzymes have been shown to be important during atherosclerotic disease development. Study of these proteases is currently limited because of lack of robust molecular imaging agents for imaging protease activity in vivo. Activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs) have been used to monitor MMP activity in tumors and, in(More)
We recently developed activatable cell-penetrating peptides (ACPPs) that target contrast agents to in vivo sites of matrix metalloproteinase activity, such as tumors. Here we use parallel in vivo and in vitro selection with phage display to identify novel tumor-homing ACPPs with no bias for primary sequence or target protease. Specifically, phage displaying(More)
We present a new class of ultrasound molecular imaging agents that extend upon the design of micromotors that are designed to move through fluids by catalyzing hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and propelling forward by escaping oxygen microbubbles. Micromotor converters require 62 mm of H₂O₂ to move - 1000-fold higher than is expected in vivo. Here, we aim to prove(More)