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In the first months of 2011, Internet communications were disrupted in several North African countries in response to civilian protests and threats of civil war. In this paper we analyze episodes of these disruptions in two countries: Egypt and Libya. Our analysis relies on multiple sources of large-scale data already available to academic researchers: BGP(More)
We use historical BGP data and recent active measurements to analyze trends in the growth, structure, dynamics and performance of the evolving IPv6 Internet, and compare them to the evolution of IPv4. We find that the IPv6 network is maturing, albeit slowly. While most core Internet transit providers have deployed IPv6, edge networks are lagging. Early IPv6(More)
Unsolicited one-way Internet traffic, also called Internet background radiation (IBR), has been used for years to study malicious activity on the Internet, including worms, DoS attacks, and scanning address space looking for vulnerabilities to exploit. We show how such traffic can also be used to analyze macroscopic Internet events that are unrelated to(More)
Three strains of Agaricus bisporus (B430, 116, and 155.8), which share the ability to form hyphal aggregates on solid media under axenic conditions, were investigated with respect to carbohydrate levels and activities of enzymes involved in their carbon metabolism. The size and macroscopic appearance of the aggregates, when grown on diluted medium, suggest(More)
Internet Background Radiation (IBR) is unsolicited network traffic mostly generated by malicious software, e.g., worms, scans. In previous work, we extracted a signal from IBR traffic arriving at a large (/8) segment of unassigned IPv4 address space to identify large-scale disruptions of connectivity at an Autonomous System (AS) granularity, and used our(More)
Applications often use IP addresses as end host identifiers based on the assumption that IP addresses do not change frequently, even when dynamically assigned. The validity of this assumption depends upon the duration of time that an IP address continues to be assigned to the same end host, and this duration in turn, depends upon the various causes that can(More)
Understanding data plane health is essential to improving Internet reliability and usability. For instance, detecting disruptions in peer and provider networks can identify repairable connectivity problems. Currently this task is time consuming as it involves a fair amount of manual observation, as an operator has poor visibility beyond their network’s(More)
The increasing use of middleboxes (e.g., NATs, firewalls) in the Internet has made it harder and harder to deploy new transport or higher layer protocols, or even extensions to existing ones. Current work to address this Internet transport ossification has led to renewed interest in UDP as an encapsulation for making novel transport protocols deployable in(More)